Flashcards in 19 Opioids 1 Deck (34):
T/F endogenous opioid peptides exist?
List the opioid receptors? What is their mechanism of action?
-mu, delta, kappa
How do opioids relieve pain?
Reduce sensitization due to injury
What are classic opioid side effects? (5) and less classic ones? (9) (just get familiar w/ them, not memorize)
-euphoria, antitussive, inhibit sex hormone, miosis, itch, bradycardia, vasodilation, GI spasm, seizures
[generally: depresses pain, wakefulness, heart, lungs, & GI]
What is tolerance? Dependence?
-need greater dose
-physical:need dose or go into withdrawal. psych: "need" it
3 cardinal signs of opioid intoxication? (relate to the side effects)
respiratory depression, stupor/coma, miosis (constriction)
What does he want you to know about pain not managed by opioids?
we prescribe enough opioids but don't manage the psychological aspect of pain. Also opioids don't help much during physical activity
absence pain w/o loss of consciousness
Narcotics defined legally? medically?
Pain is due to?
tissue damage, directly related in intensity
what kind of pain med is most effective against motivation-affective pain?
What are the most efficacious pain meds?
What happens as opioid dose increases?
side effects exceed pain relief
T/F endogenous opioids are generally specific for 1 type of receptor (mu, delta, kappa)?
False. (he said "don't need to know which goes to which receptor for the test")
Mu receptors produce what functions? (integration "global" card, don't mem. list 8)
sedation, analgesia, dependence, respiratory depression, miosis, drops GI motility, vasodilation, euphoria
Kappa receptors produce what functions? (integration "global" card, don't mem. list 7)
analgesia, anticonvulsant, delirium, diuresis, dysphoria, miosis, sedation
Delta receptors produce what function? (global card don't mem. list 4)
analgesia, antidepressant, convulsant, physical dependence
What unique effect do delta receptors have? (2)
convulsant & antidepressant
What unique effect do kappa receptors have? (3)
anticonvulsant, delirium, dysphoria
What unique effect do mu receptors have? (4)
respiratory depression, euphoria, drops GI motility, vasodilation
T/F all 3 opioid receptors produce analgesia?
[note that mu and kappa receptors share similar effects like miosis, sedation, etc while the ONLY effect delta receptors have in common with the others is analgesia]
what kind of nociceptor do prostaglandins act on?
what kind of nociceptor does acid work on?
Once opioid G-protein is triggered what does it do?
On excitatory neurons: Inhibit neurotransmission by blocking Ca influx presynaptically and increasing K efflux postsynaptically
What prevents respiratory depression?
How are opioid side effects prevented?
anti-emetics & laxatives
What drug reverses opioid overdose?
What side effects do not become tolerant to opioids?
Why is there no max dose of opioids?
tolerance to respiratory depression
Can a non-addicted person go thru withdrawal?
yes (they had physical but not psych dependence)
what does withdrawal look like?
sweaty, fast heart/BP, pain & can't sleep, squirting out both ends of GI tract
physical dependence is defined how?
[note: develops along w/ tolerance!!]
psych dependence is related to what neuro circuit?