19. Response to high altitude Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 19. Response to high altitude Deck (18):
1

adaption

1. increased ventilation
2. increased erythropoietin
3. increased 2.3 BPG
4. Cellular changes
5. RIght ventricular hypertrophy
6. Increased renal exertion of HCO3--

2

PCO2- ? ( mechanism)

decreased
because of the increased ventilation

3

cellular change

increases mitochondria

4

ventilation ( chronic

increased

5

reflex

decreased atmospheric PO2--> decreased PaO2--> increased ventilation --> decreased PaCO2

6

heart structure changes ?
mechanism

chronic hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction results in RIGHT ventricular hypertrophy

7

hb modification

ncreased 2.3 BPG ---> bind to Hb so that

8

Renal response

1. increased erythropoietin --> increased hematocrit and Hb ( chronic hypoxia)
2. Increased renal exertion of HCO3- to compensate for respiratory alkalosis

9

compensation of respiratory alkalosis

increased renal excretion of HCO3

10

renal excretion of HCO3 can augment with

acetazolamide

11

• A hiker goes up to high altitudes for an afternoon. What happens to his ventilation, PaO2, and PaCO2?

PaO2 and PaCO2 decrease, as ventilation is increased

12

• A patient has been living high in the mountains for years. What happens to his erythropoietin levels?

In response to high altitude, erythropoietin levels are increased, as are hematocrit and hemoglobin

13

A hiker ascends a mountain. What happens to his level of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate?

In response to high altitude, the 2,3-BPG level increases

14

• What substance binds to hemoglobin so that hemoglobin releases more oxygen as a physiologic response to high altitude?

2,3-bisphosphoglycerate

15

A hiker climbs up a tall mountain. What cellular change occurs in response to this?

An increase in the number of mitochondria occurs in response to high altitude

16

The increased renal excretion of bicarbonate that is seen in response to high altitude compensates for what?

The respiratory alkalosis that occurs as a result of increased ventilation

17

The increased renal excretion of bicarbonate that is seen in response to high altitude can be augmented using what?

Acetazolamide

18

A man decides to live in the mountains for several years. In response, chronic hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction results in what condition?

Right ventricular hypertrophy