1990s Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1990s Deck (103):
1

Douglas Wilder

First African-American governor, elected in 1990.

2

Marion Barry

Mayor of D.C., investigated by the FBI in 1990 after they uncovered a video of him smoking crack cocaine.

3

Moscow McDonald's

In 1990 a McDonald's was opened in Moscow, signaling the beginning of the end for communism.

4

Smoking bans

Beginning in 1990, smoking bans began going into effect, making it illegal to smoke on flights, in restaurants, bars, and eventually, hotels.

5

TV Martí

A Spanish language TV station which began broadcasting to Cuba in 1990.

6

"The Perfect Moment"

Robert Mapplethorpe's 1990 homoerotic art show that was protested by Citizens for Community Values.

7

1990 Chemical Weapons Accord

Signed by Bush, Sr. and Gorbachev in D.C., both countries agreed to end chemical weapon production and begin destroying their respective stocks.

8

Read my lips: no new taxes

A phrase spoken by Pres. Bush, Sr. at the 1988 Republican National Convention. Unfortunately, it would hurt him in re-election, as he signed necessary tax increases in 1990 to prevent inflation.

9

Early 1990s recession

Pres. Bush, Sr.'s presidency was hurt by this economic event. It also encouraged people to shop at discount stores, as a result, KMart and Wal-Mart became the nation's most profitable retailers.

10

David Durenberger

A U.S. senator denounced in 1990 for unethical economic activities.

11

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Sign by Pres. Bush, Sr: it is a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability.

12

Barney Frank

Most prominent gay politician in the U.S., in 1990 he was rebuked by the U.S. Legislative branch for engaging in sex with a male prostitute.

13

Floyd H. Flake

U.S. representative indicted in 1990 on numerous economic violations.

14

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany

An international treaty signed in 1990 paving the way for German reunification.

15

New Revised Standard Version

A version of the bible released in the U.S. in 1990 that contained changed with regards to gendered language.

16

Michael Dugan

The Air Force Chief of Staff fired by Defense Secretary Dick Cheney in 1990 in the days leading up to the Gulf War, after Dugan blabbed to reporters about plans to assassinate Saddam Hussein.

17

Clean Air Act

Passed in 1990, to prevent toxic rain. The Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits.

18

Lisa Olson

She is an American sportswriter. In 1990, Olson claimed that she had been sexually harassed by New England Patriots football players in the team's locker room. Olson sued the team, and the players involved were punished.

19

United Nations Security Council Resolution 678

A 1990 UN Resolution threatening military intervention in Iraq if they did not leave Kuwait.

20

John Gotti

When this crime boss was arrested in 1990, it signaled the end of traditional mafia rule.

21

McDonnell Douglas A-12 Avenger II

A proposed attack aircraft cancelled by Secretary of Defense Cheney in 1991 after learning it would cost $57 billion.

22

Tariq Aziz

Iraq's Foreign Minister during the Gulf War, he claimed America's motives were "oil and Israel."

23

Aileen Wuornos

A female serial killer and prostitute sentenced to death in 1991.

24

Operation Desert Storm

The combat part of the Gulf War which occurred in 1990- a coalition of nations lead by the U.S.. The war was marked by the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the U.S. network CNN. Early 1990s recession ended during this time.

25

Scud

Missiles used successfully by Iraq against the U.S. during Operation Desert Storm.

26

Rodney King

An American construction worker who rose to notoriety in 1991 after a video surfaced of five officers surrounding King, several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood by.

27

Mount Pleasant riot

A 1991 riot sparked by the shooting of a Salvadoran man.

28

Jeffrey Dahmer

A gay serial killer arrested in 1991.

29

START I

The largest and most complex arms control treaty in history, and its final implementation in late 2001 resulted in the removal of about 80 percent of all strategic nuclear weapons then in existence. It was drafted by Pres. Reagan and signed by Pres. Bush in 1991.

30

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

The independence of these three countries was recognized by the U.S. in 1991.

31

Tailhook scandal

U.S. military officers in 1991 sexually assaulted at least 83 women and 7 men at a Las Vegas event. Military critics claimed that the scandal highlighted a hostile attitude in US military culture towards women.

32

Gary Mandich

U.S. military lieutenant, in response to the Tailhook scandal, he said "Everyone needs to seriously lighten up. What do they expect? This is Vegas baby! They call this symposium 'Tail' hook for a reason!" Prompting protests from numerous women's groups.

33

Clarence Thomas Supreme Court nomination

Thomas was controversially nominated in 1991 by Pres. Bush to succeed Thurgood Marshall. Colleague Anita Hill accused Thomas of sexual harassment. His sexual harassment hearings were conducted by an all-male senate panel and he was eventually confirmed, leading many women to be upset.

34

David Duke

A far-right White nationalist who ran for Governor of Louisiana in 1991 and lost, despite receiving an overwhelming majority of the white vote.

35

Resignation of Mikhail Gorbachev

In December 1991, Gorbachev resigned, the USSR collapsed, and the Cold War ended.

36

1992 Los Angeles riots

Widespread looting and racial violence was on display in these riots which occurred as a result of the acquittal of the officers who beat Rodney King and required federal intervention.

37

The 27th Amendment

Ratified in 1992, it prohibits any law that increases or decreases the salary of members of Congress from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms of office for Representatives.

38

Murphy Brown Speech

A 1992 speech by Vice President Dan Quayle in which he bashed single mothers and the Los Angeles riotters.

39

Potatoe

In 1992 Dan Quayle spelled potato wrong at a child's spelling bee.

40

Ruby Ridge

A deadly confrontation in 1992 between the FBI and Randy Weaver. It contributed to the growth of the militia movement.

41

Yoshihiro Hattori

A 16-year old Japanese citizen who was shot in Louisiana after knocking on the wrong door. His killer was acquitted sparking controversy.

42

United States presidential election, 1992

Bill Clinton defeated Republican George H.W. Bush and independent Ross Perot. Bush had alienated much of his conservative base by breaking his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes. The economy was also in a recession and Bush's perceived greatest strength, foreign policy, was regarded as much less important following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the relatively peaceful climate in the Middle East after the defeat of Iraq in the Gulf War.

43

The Bodyguard

The soundtrack to this 1992 film became the best-selling of all time.

44

"The Chronic"

1992 album by Dr. Dre which sparked the beginning of the mainstream popularity and success of Gangsta Rap, G-Funk, and West Coast Hip-Hop in the United States.

45

Iraqi no-fly zones

A set of two separate no-fly zones proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom, and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect the Kurds in northern Iraq and Shiite Muslims in the south.

46

START II

In 1993, Pres. Bush signed this agreement with Russian president Boris Yeltsin.

47

Waco siege

A deadly 1993 siege of a Branch Dividian militia ranch. The compound eventually burned down killing 76 people, Janet Reno received much of the blame.

48

1993 World Trade Center bombing

A 1993 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center involving a truck bomb.

49

Lorena Bobbitt

A cause célèbre, a woman who cut off her husband John's penis after claiming he raped her.

50

101 California Street shooting

A 1993 mass shooting that caused Congress to pass the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act.

51

Don't ask, don't tell

Pres. Clinton's 1993 policy regarding gays in the military. Seen as a failure, undone by Pres. Obama in 2011.

52

North American Free Trade Agreement

Pres. Clinton pushed for this treaty, which went into effect in 1994.

53

Pres. Clinton's first State of the Union Address

1994: Welfare reform, healthcare reform, ban on assault weapons.

54

Nancy Kerrigan

Female figure skater attacked in 1994 at the orders of rival Tonya Harding.

55

Kurt Cobain

Lead singer of the grunge band Nirvana, committed suicide in 1994.

56

O. J. Simpson

A rich and famous footballer. In 1994, he was arrested for the murder of his ex-girlfriend Nicole Brown Simpson and her boyfriend Ron Goldman. Simpson's team presented evidence of racism by the LAPD and he was acquitted for the crime, dividing racial tensions.

57

Federal Assault Weapons Ban

A law signed by Pres. Clinton in 1994.

58

Jean-Bertrand Aristide

In 1994, America staged a bloodless invasion of Haiti, to restore this man to power.

59

Republican Revolution

The G.O.P.'s success in 1994 of taking over both houses of Congress for the first time in 50 years, lead by Newt Gingrich.

60

California Proposition 187

A 1994 ballot initiative preventing illegal citizens from taking advantage of any publicly funded programs.

61

Whitewater controversy

A federal investigation began in 1994, involving the real estate activities of Bill and Hillary Clinton.

62

104th United States Congress

The first double Republican Congress since the 1950s, they were elected in 1994. Major events included passage of elements of the Contract with America and a budget impasse between Congress and the Clinton Administration that resulted in the Federal government shutdown of 1995 and 1996.

63

Black rage

The defense used after a black man shot up a LIRR station in 1994.

64

Murder of Selena

The 1994 death of this Latina pop star devastated America's Hispanic population.

65

Contract with America

The Republican controlled Congress sought, in 1994-1996, to implement this plan- which included strong sentencing and a focus on "personal responsibility."

66

Oklahoma City bombing

Domestic terrorism in 1995- Timothy McVeigh bombed a federal building, causing Congress to pass legislation limiting habeas corpus. McVeigh claimed his bombing was a response to the Waco siege.

67

Johnnie Cochran

"If it (the glove) doesn't fit, you must acquit."

68

United States federal government shutdowns of 1995 and 96

President Clinton disagreed with the Republican congress's stances on public funding for Medicare- the events caused the public to distrust Newt Gingrich.

69

Toy Story

First feature length computer animated film, released in 1995 by Pixar.

70

Million Man March

An en masse gathering of African-Americans. The event was planned by controversial leader Louis Farrakhan. The march took place within the context of a larger grassroots movement that set out to win politicians’ attention for urban and minority issues through widespread voter registration campaigns. A parallel event called the Day of Absence, organized by female leaders in conjunction with the March leadership, occurred on the same date, and was intended to engage the large population of black Americans who would not be able to attend the demonstration in Washington. On this date, all blacks were encouraged to stay home.

71

Dot-com bubble

Historic speculative bubble covering roughly 1997–2000, in which the economy of the United States rapidly developed due to success in the internet sector.

72

Travelgate

1993 controversy surrounding the temporary firing of members of the White House travel office so that Pres. Clinton could instate his friends in the newly opened positions. As a result of media scrutiny, the fired employees were reinstated. Part of Starr's investigations.

73

Vince Foster

A Deputy White House council member whose mysterious 1993 suicide became political fodder for anti-Clinton conservatives.

74

North Cape oil spill

1996- First major oil spill since the passage of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

75

Brothers to the Rescue

An anti-Cuban group which was shot down by Cuba in 1996 while dropping anti-Cuban leaflets in that country's airspace. Led to the Helms-Burton Act and the arrest of the Cuban Five.

76

Montana Freemen

A Christian patriot movement which was engaged in a standoff with the FBI in 1996.

77

Line Item Veto Act

1996 legislation which grants the president line item veto power, passed in response to the government shutdowns of the 90s.

78

Romer v. Evans

(1996) Gay rights case which found that Colorado couldn't bar protections for gay people.

79

Centennial Olympic Park bombing

A 1996 terrorist attack targeted at the Olympic games in Atlanta.

80

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act

Clinton's 1996 Welfare reform bill which required aide recipients to look for work.

81

1996 United States campaign finance controversy

An attempt by the nation of China to donate money to the Democratic party in an attempt to influence policy.

82

United States presidential election, 1996

Democrat Clinton defeats Republican Bob Dole.

83

1993 shootings at CIA Headquarters

A terrorist attack in Langley motivated by the USA's anti-Palestine actions.

84

Paula Jones

A woman who raised harassment complaints against Pres. Clinton in 1998.

85

Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc.

(1998) Affirmed the existence of same-sex sexual harassment.

86

Viagra

Male impotence treatment invented in 1998.

87

United States v. Microsoft Corp.

(1998) An antitrust case which found that Microsoft could not bundle Internet Explorer with its hardware.

88

California Proposition 227

(1998) Eliminated bilingual education programs in California.

89

James Byrd, Jr.

A black man murdered by three white supremacists in Texas in 1998, inspiring federal hate crime legislation.

90

Clinton v. City of New York

(1998) Ruled the Line Item Veto Act unconstitutional.

91

Monica Lewinsky

A White House intern who gave testimony in 1998 describing her affair with the president, leading to his impeachment.

92

1998 United States embassy bombings

Two African-located U.S. embassies were car bombed simultaneously in an attack linked to Osama Bin Laden. This terrorism led to Pres. Clinton's failed cruise missile strike on Afghanistan and Sudan.

93

Google

A tech company founded in 1998.

94

Iraq Liberation Act

A 1998 act which confirmed that the US sought to change the leadership in Iraq, in response to Iraq's refusal to dispose of its weapons of mass destruction and the embassy bombings.

95

Matthew Shepard

A 1998 gay hate crime victim whose murder made him a symbol of homophobia and inspired hate crime legislation.

96

Copyright Term Extension Act

A controversial 1998 law which extended the length of copyright ownership.

97

Minnesota gubernatorial election, 1998

Jesse Ventura, former wrestler, is elected governor of Minnesota on the Reform Party ticket- considered an historic major upset.

98

Jefferson–Hemings controversy

In 1998 it was definitively discovered that Thomas Jefferson fathered numerous children with his slave Sally Hemings, a controversial finding at the time.

99

Columbine High School massacre

A 1999 school shooting which started cultural debates about a slew of cultural issues, including gun control and high school culture.

100

Amadou Diallo

A black man shot to death in 1999, causing racial tensions to erupt in New York City.

101

Woodstock 1999

A music festival which was embroiled in tragic and emblematic instance of rape, violence, and arson.

102

1999 Seattle WTO protests

AKA the Battle of Seattle, over 40000 mostly young Americans protested the meeting of the WTO. The media misrepresented the protestors and the Seattle police chief resigned due to excessive force. It was the most significant anti-globalization moment in world history.

103

Napster

A file-sharing site which opened in 1999.