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1

What are the 4 tenets of osteopathic medicine?

1. body is a unit, of mind, and spirit.
2. body is capable of self-regulation.
3. structure/function are reciprocally interrelated
4. rational Tx requires understanding of body.

2

What is somatic dysfunction?

1. impaired function of related components of the somatic system.

3

What are the two theories that explain why somatic dysfunction develops?

1. proprioceptive theory helps body know where it is in space.
2. Nociceptive theory: helps body with pain sensation.

4

Describe what a physiological barrier is and provide an example.

1. limits the active ROM.
2. under control of muscles. finger extension/flexion.

5

Describe what an anatomic barrier is and provide an example.

1. limits the ROM based on anatomical structures, from outside force. prevent bones from breaking
2. uses outside force to push finger back into hyperextended position.

6

Describe what a restrictive barrier is and provide an example.

1. caused by somatic dysfunction. impediment to physiological barrier that reduces the active motion.
2. barrier that will prevent overall loss of function.

7

What is TART?

1. the mnemonic for diagnosing different criteria for somatic dysfunction

8

What does TART stand for, in assisting with remembering criteria for somatic dysfunction?

1. Tissue texture changes
2. Asymmetry
3. Restriction of Motion
4. Tenderness.

9

What timeline classifies tissue changes as acute?

3 days with somatic dysfunction

10

What timeline classifies tissue changes as sub-acute?

3 days to 3 months with somatic dysfunction

11

What timeline classifies tissue changes as chronic?

3+ months of somatic dysfunction.

12

What is the best way to describe motion that is associated with the coronal plane?

1. contributes to side-bending or (roll)

13

What is the best way to describe motion that is associated with the sagittal plane?

1. flexion, extension of back (pitch)

14

What is the best way to describe motion that is associated with the transverse plane?

1. rotation. (yaw)

15

Describe what a proprioceptive theory of somatic dysfunction.

1. Trauma/abnormal movement causes abnormal placement of muscle. This "resets" the normal of the CNS, causing it to reduce ROM and form a new physiological barrier (restrictive barrier) and a new neutral plane.

16

Describe what is meant by nociceptive theory of somatic dysfunction.

1. An initial pain stimulus causes the body to react with a reflex mechanisms to protect itself. This guarding can lead to increased dysfunction by increasing stress/strain on the injured section.

17

Describe how to detect acute dysfunction.

1. Heat, stabbing pain,
2. Edematous
3. ROM is normal but sluggish in areas
4. Hypertonic, with red and inflammation

18

Describe how to detect chronic pain.

1. Cold, pale.
2. Ache, dull pain
3. Decreased ROM with normal response
4. Fibrotic, doughy, stringy.

19

What is spinal facilitation and the overall effect?

1. Somatic dysfunction that leads to reduced tolerance of the sensation to the spinal cord. Secondary to nerve impingement/damage.
2. Prolonged stimulation reduces threshold and increases irritability and dysfunction.