1A/1B Flashcards Preview

Psychology > 1A/1B > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1A/1B Deck (28):
1

Classical Conditioning

a process that creates an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previous neutral one.

2

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS):

a stimulus that elicits a reflexive or innate response (UCR) without prior learning

3

Conditioned Stimulus (CS):

a stimulus that, through association with a UCS, comes to elicit a conditioned response similar to the original UCR

4

Unconditioned Response (UCR):

a reflexive or innate response that is elicited by a stimulus (UCS) without prior learning

5

Conditioned Response (CR):

a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus

6

Stimulus Generalisation:

a tendencey to respond to stimuli that are similar, but not identical, to a conditioned stimulus – will elicit CR but in a weaker form

7

Stimulus Discrimination:

the ability to respond differently to various stimuli

8

Pavlov’s Dogs

Dogs naturally salivate in response to food (UCS). A tone (CS) was then associated with the food, to condition the dogs to the tone.
After conditioning, dogs salivated in the presence of the tone (CS) and the absence of the food (UCS)

9

Watson & Raynor (1920) – Little Albert Experiment

Toy rat initially produced no response in baby. Rat was then associated with a loud noise (UCS), to condition the baby to the rat.
After conditioning, baby cried in the presence of the rat (CS) and the absence of loud noise (UCS).

10

Observational (Social) Learning

Occurs by watching and imitating actions of another person or by noting consequences of a person’s actions
Occurs before direct practice is allowed
Success requires 1) attention, 2) retention, 3) production, 4) motivation
Don’t imitate behaviour of everyone

11

Bandura (1961) – Bobo Doll Experiment

Children imitate adults behaving aggressively to a bobo doll

12

Operant Conditioning
Definition:

a process by which behaviour is learned and maintained by its consequences

13

Reinforcement:

a response is strengthened by an outcome that follows it

14

Reinforcer

outcome (a stimulus or event) that increases the frequency of a response.

15

Punishment:

a response is weakened by the outcome that follows it.

16

Punisher:

a consequence that weakens (decreases) the frequency of a response.

17

Operant Extinction:

the weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer reinforced.

18

Types of Reinforcement

Positive: occurs when a response is strengthened by subsequent presentation of a reinforcer.
Negative: occurs when a response is strengthened by removal (or avoidance) of an aversive stimulus.

19

Schedules of Partial Reinforcement

Fixed Interval: reinforcement occurs at a fixed time interval
Variable Interval: time interval varies at random around an average
Fixed Ratio: reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses
Variable Ratio: reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses, all centered around an average

20

Continuous Reinforcement:

every instance of behaviour is reinforced

More rapid learning with continuous, as association is easier to understand

Behaviour extinguishes more rapidly than partially reinforced response as the shift to no reinforcement is sudden and obvious

21

Definition of Health Behaviour:

any activity undertaken by an individual believing himself to be healthy, for the purpose of preventing disease or detecting it at an asymptomatic stage.

22

Effect of Education on Health Behaviour

Effective for discrete behaviour (e.g. getting a vaccine)
NOT effective on its own for complex behaviours (does not address reasons for poor behaviours)
So, needs to be combined with individualised support, as well as economic, environmental and regulatory support

23

Definition of Self-Efficacy:

belief that one can execute the behaviour required to produce the outcome.

24

Sources of Self-Efficacy

Mastery experience
Social learning
Verbal persuasion/encouragement
Physiological arousal

25

Health Belief Model

10

26

Theory of Planned Behaviour

10

27

Transtheoretical Model

11

28

Extinction

a process in which the CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of the UCS, causing the CR to weaken and eventually disappear