Flashcards in 1A/1B Deck (28):
a process that creates an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previous neutral one.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS):
a stimulus that elicits a reflexive or innate response (UCR) without prior learning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS):
a stimulus that, through association with a UCS, comes to elicit a conditioned response similar to the original UCR
Unconditioned Response (UCR):
a reflexive or innate response that is elicited by a stimulus (UCS) without prior learning
Conditioned Response (CR):
a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
a tendencey to respond to stimuli that are similar, but not identical, to a conditioned stimulus – will elicit CR but in a weaker form
the ability to respond differently to various stimuli
Dogs naturally salivate in response to food (UCS). A tone (CS) was then associated with the food, to condition the dogs to the tone.
After conditioning, dogs salivated in the presence of the tone (CS) and the absence of the food (UCS)
Watson & Raynor (1920) – Little Albert Experiment
Toy rat initially produced no response in baby. Rat was then associated with a loud noise (UCS), to condition the baby to the rat.
After conditioning, baby cried in the presence of the rat (CS) and the absence of loud noise (UCS).
Observational (Social) Learning
Occurs by watching and imitating actions of another person or by noting consequences of a person’s actions
Occurs before direct practice is allowed
Success requires 1) attention, 2) retention, 3) production, 4) motivation
Don’t imitate behaviour of everyone
Bandura (1961) – Bobo Doll Experiment
Children imitate adults behaving aggressively to a bobo doll
a process by which behaviour is learned and maintained by its consequences
a response is strengthened by an outcome that follows it
outcome (a stimulus or event) that increases the frequency of a response.
a response is weakened by the outcome that follows it.
a consequence that weakens (decreases) the frequency of a response.
the weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer reinforced.
Types of Reinforcement
Positive: occurs when a response is strengthened by subsequent presentation of a reinforcer.
Negative: occurs when a response is strengthened by removal (or avoidance) of an aversive stimulus.
Schedules of Partial Reinforcement
Fixed Interval: reinforcement occurs at a fixed time interval
Variable Interval: time interval varies at random around an average
Fixed Ratio: reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses
Variable Ratio: reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses, all centered around an average
every instance of behaviour is reinforced
More rapid learning with continuous, as association is easier to understand
Behaviour extinguishes more rapidly than partially reinforced response as the shift to no reinforcement is sudden and obvious
Definition of Health Behaviour:
any activity undertaken by an individual believing himself to be healthy, for the purpose of preventing disease or detecting it at an asymptomatic stage.
Effect of Education on Health Behaviour
Effective for discrete behaviour (e.g. getting a vaccine)
NOT effective on its own for complex behaviours (does not address reasons for poor behaviours)
So, needs to be combined with individualised support, as well as economic, environmental and regulatory support
Definition of Self-Efficacy:
belief that one can execute the behaviour required to produce the outcome.
Sources of Self-Efficacy
Health Belief Model
Theory of Planned Behaviour