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Flashcards in 1a-Chapter 1 Major Themes Deck (135):
1

Anatomy

The study of structure

1

Ways to examine structure

inspection
palpation
auscultation
percussion
dissection

2

inspection

simplest
looking at the body

3

palpation

feeling the structure with the hands

4

auscultation

listening to the natural sounds made by the body

5

percussion

taps on the body,
feels for abnormal resistance
listens to emitted sounds

6

dissection

careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships

7

cadaver

a dead human body

8

comparative anatomy

the study of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends

9

exploratory surgery

opening the body and taking a look inside

10

medical imaging

methods of viewing inside the body without surgery

11

radiology

branch of medicine concerned with imaging

12

histopathology

microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease

13

gross anatomy

that which can be seen with the naked eye
radiology, observation or dissection

14

histology

microscopic anatomy
observe under a microscope

15

cytology

study of functions and structure of individual cells

16

ultrastructure

fine detail
down to molecular level
using electron microscope

17

Physiology

The study of function

18

comparative physiology

study of different species to learn about bodily function
•animal surgery
•animal drug tests
for the development of new drugs and medical procedures

19

Physiology subdisciplines

Neurophysiology - nervous system
Endrocrineology - hormones
Pathophysiology - mechanisms of disease

20

Hippocrates

Greek physician
Father of medicine
Established code of ethics
Urged physicians to seek natural causes of disease rather than attributing them to acts of gods and demons
"Let food be thy medicine, and let medicine be thy food"

21

Aristotle

one of the first philosophers to write about anatomy and physiology
believed that diseases had either supernatural causes or physical causes
believed that complex structures are built from simpler parts

22

theologi

called supernatural causes of disease theologi

23

physiologi

called natural causes for disease physiologi

24

Claudius Galen

physician to roman gladiators
wrote book advising followers to trust their own observation more than the teaching of dogma of the “ancient masters”

25

Avicenna

Muslim
Wrote the Canon of Medicine

26

Maimonides

Jewish physician
10 influential medical books

27

Andreas Vesalius

taught anatomy in Italy
Did dissection himself
first atlas of anatomy

28

Michael Servetus

realized that blood must circulate throughout the body
heart controlled flow

29

William Harvey

English
realized blood flows out from heart and back to it again

30

Robert Hooke

English
made many improvements to the compound microscope

31

Antony Van Leeuwenhoek

Dutch
invented a simple (single-lens) microscope

32

Carl Zeiss & Ernst Abbe

improved compound microscopes

33

Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann

first tenet of Cell Theory
•considered as the most important breakthrough in biomedical history
•all functions of the body are interpreted as effects of cellular activity

34

scientific method

Francis Bacon, in England, and
Rene Descartes, in France

35

Francis Bacon

argued for objectivity in science
inductive method

36

inductive method

first prescribed by Bacon
process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in making generalizations and predictions from them

37

In science, all truth is tentative

–“proof beyond a reasonable doubt”

38

Proof in science

–reliable observations
–tested and confirmed repeatedly
–not falsified by any credible observation

40

hypothetico-deductive method

morephysiological knowledge gained by this method
•investigator asks a question
•formulates a hypothesis

40

hypothesis

to suggest a method for answering questions -are written as „If-Then‟ statements

41

falsifiability

if we claim something is scientifically true, we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong

42

Experimental design

sample size
controls
psychosomatic effects
experimental bias
statistical testing

44

sample size

–number of subjects used in a study
–controls for chance events and individual variation

44

controls

–control group and treatment group
–comparison of treated and untreated individuals

45

psychosomatic effects

effects of the subject‟s state of mind on his or her physiology
–use of placebo in control group

46

Placebo

a substance with no significant physiological effect on the body

47

experimental bias

experimenters bias controlling outcome of study
prevented with double-blind study

48

double blind method

neither subject nor individual administering treatment know if it is a placebo

50

statistical testing

–provides statements of probability

50

peer review

critical evaluation by other experts in the field
Ensures honesty, objectivity and quality in science

51

fact

information that can be independently verified by any trained person

52

law of nature

generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy work

53

theory

explanatory statement derived from facts, laws and confirmed hypotheses

54

evolution

change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms

55

selection pressures

natural forces tat promote reproductive success of some individuals more than others
climate,
predators
disease

56

Theory of natural selection

Charles Darwin
how species originate and change through time

57

Natural Selection

some individuals within a species have hereditary advantage over their competitors

58

adaptations

features of an organism‟s anatomy, physiology, or behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enable the organism to cope with the challenges of its environment.

59

selection pressures

natural forces that promote the reproductive success of some individuals more than others

60

adaptations

features of an organism's anatomy, physiology, or behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enable the organism to cope with the challenges of its environment.

61

Study of evolutionary relationships

help us chose animals for biomedical research (the animal model)

62

model

animal species selected for research on a particular problem

63

Closest relative -chimpanzee

–difference of only 1.6% in DNA structure
–chimpanzees and gorillas differ by 2.3%

64

Vestigial Organs

remnants of organs that apparently were better developed and more functional in the ancestors of a species, and now serve little or no purpose

65

basic primate adaptations

opposable thumbs
prehensile hands
stereoscopic vision
bipedalism

66

opposable

thumbs could cross the palm and touch the finger tips

67

prehensile

ability to grasp branches by encircling them with thumb and forefingers

68

stereoscopic vision

depth perception

69

bipedalism

standing and walking on two legs

70

Walking Upright

African forest became grassland 4-5 million years ago
Bipedalism

71

evolutionary (Darwinian) medicine

traces some diseases and imperfections to our evolutionary past

72

Hierarchy of Complexity

8

organism
organ system
organ
tissue
cell
organelle
molecule
atoms

73

Organism

single, complete individual

74

organ system

group of organs with a unique collective function

75

organ

structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function

76

tissue

mass of similar cells and cell products that form a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function

77

cells

smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life

78

organelles

microscopic structures in a cell that carry out individual functions

79

molecules

a particle composed of at least 2 atoms

80

atoms

the smallest particles with unique chemical identities

81

reductionism

from Aristotle
complex systems can be understood by studying simpler components of the system

82

Holism

complementary to reductionism
emergent properties of the whole organism cannot be predicted from the simpler parts

83

Characteristics of life

8

organization
cellular composition
metabolism
responsiveness and movement
homeostasis
development
reproduction
evolution

84

organization

higher level of organization than non-living

85

cellular composition

compartmentalized into 1 or more cells

86

metabolism

sum of all internal chemical change
requires excretion
anabolism - build
catabolism - cut

87

excretion

separation of wastes from tissues and elimination from the body

88

responsiveness and movement

Ability to react to stimuli

89

stimuli

changes in their environment

90

homeostasis

the ability to maintain internal stability

91

differentiation

transformation of cells with no specific function into cells committed to a specific task

92

development

differentiation and growth

93

growth

increase in size

94

Reproduction

produce copies of themselves

95

evolution

exhibit genetic change from generation to generation

96

Anatomical Variation

No two humans are exactly alike
variation in organ locations

97

Physiological Variation

Sex, age, diet, weight, physical activity
reference man and woman
Overmedication of elderly

98

reference man

healthy male
22
154 pounds
light physical activity
2800 Kcal per day

99

reference woman

healthy female
22
128 pounds
light physical activity
2000 Kcal per day

100

walter cannon

coined term homeostasis
state of the body fluctuates (dynamic equilibrium) within limited range around a set point
Negative feedback keeps variable close to the set point
Loss of homeostatic control causes illness or death

101

homeostasis

the body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions

102

dynamic equilibrium

balanced change
the best description for the internal state of the body

103

set point

refers to dynamic equilibrium
average value for a given variable and conditions fluctuate around this value

104

feedback loops

feedback mechanisms that alter the original changes that triggered them
usually have:
receptor
integrating (control) center
effector

105

receptor

a structure that senses changes in the body

106

integrating (control) center

a mechanism that processes the information and makes a decision about the appropriate response

107

effector

carries out the final corrective action to restore homeostasis

108

negative feedback

a process where the body senses change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it
dynamic equilibrium(

109

Negative Feedback in Human Thermoregulation

Brain senses change in blood temperature
–if too warm, vessels dilate (vasodilation) in the skin and sweating begins (heat losing mechanisms)
–if too cold, vessels in the skin constrict (vasoconstriction)and shivering begins (heat gaining mechanism)

110

vasodilation

widening of the blood vessels

111

vasoconstriction

narrowing of the blood vessels

112

positive feedback

a self-amplifying cycle
leads to even greater change in the same direction
Normal way of producing rapid changes

113

Harmful Positive Feedback Loop

Fever > 104 degrees F

114

Baroreceptors

sense blood pressure

115

Anatomical Terminology

Greek and Latin roots

116

Scientific terms

–one root(stem) with core meaning
–combining vowels join roots into a word
–prefix modifies core meaning of root word
–suffix modifies core meaning of root word

117

eponyms

terms coined from the names of people

118

acronyms

words composed of he first letter or first few letters of a series of words

119

major themes

5

cell theory
homeostasis
evolution
hierarchy of structure
unity of form and function

120

cell theory

all structure and function results from the activity of cells

121

homeostasis

the purpose of most normal physiology is to maintain stable conditions within the body

122

evolution

the human body is the product of evolution

123

hierarchy of structure

human structure can be viewed as a series of levels of complexity

124

unity of form and function

form and function complement each other; physiology cannot be divorced from anatomy

125

auscult-

listen

126

dis-

apart

127

homeo-

the same

128

metabolo-

change

129

palp-

touch

130

physio-

nature

131

-sect

cut

132

-stasis

to stay

133

stereo-

solid

134

tomo-

to cut