1b Embryologic derivatives Flashcards Preview

αναπαραγωγικο > 1b Embryologic derivatives > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1b Embryologic derivatives Deck (33):
1

During fetal development, the adenohypophysis is derived from ____ ____, and the neurohypophysis is derived from ____.

Surface ectoderm; neuroectoderm

2

Which germ cell layer gives rise to the optic nerve and cells in the retina?

The neuroectoderm

3

During fetal development neuroectoderm forms the ____ and ____, and the neural crest forms the ____ and ____ ____ nearby.

CNS, brain, PNS, nonneural structures

4

In fetal development, which germ layer gives rise to the epithelial linings of the oral cavity, eye, ear, and nose, and to the epidermis?

The surface ectoderm

5

Which germ cell layer gives rise to parotid, sweat, and mammary glands?

The surface ectoderm

6

Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and ependymal cells stem from supporting cells in the central nervous system arising from ____ (germ layer).

Neuroectoderm

7

Which cell type ultimately gives rise to the autonomic nervous system?

The neural crest cells

8

During fetal development, the dorsal root ganglia are derived from ____.

Neural crest cells

9

During fetal development, central nervous system neurons are derived from ____; the cranial nerves are derived from ____ ____ ____.

Neuroectoderm; neural crest cells

10

During fetal development, epidermal cells are derived from ____ ____; melanocytes are derived from ____ ____ ____.

Surface ectoderm; neural crest cells

11

During fetal development, chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are derived from ____ ____ ____; the adrenal cortex is derived from ____.

Neural crest cells; mesoderm

12

During fetal development, Schwann cells are derived from ____ ____ ____; oligodendrocytes are derived from ____.

Neural crest cells; neuroectoderm

13

During fetal development, odontoblasts are derived from ____ ____ ____.

Neural crest cells

14

In fetal development, the follicular cells of the thyroid derive from ____, and the parafollicular cells (C cells) derive from ____ ____ ____.

Endoderm, neural crest cells

15

During fetal development, bones are generally derived from ____. The bones of the skull arise from ____ ____ ____.

Mesoderm; neural crest cells

16

During fetal development, what germ layer gives rise to muscle?

The mesoderm

17

During fetal development, what germ cell layer gives rise to the blood vessels, blood cells, and lymphatics?

The mesoderm

18

During fetal development, what germ cell layer gives rise to the urogenital structures? What is the exception?

The mesoderm forms kidneys, adrenal cortex, testes/ovaries, vagina; exception is the urethra, which is formed mostly from endoderm

19

During fetal development, what germ cell layer gives rise to the serous linings of body cavities, such as the peritoneal membranes?

The mesoderm

20

During fetal development, the spleen arises from what germ cell layer?

The mesoderm, from the foregut mesentery

21

What germ cell layer gives rise to the gastrointestinal tract (gut tube) epithelium (including the anal canal above the pectinate line)?

The endoderm

22

What germ cell layer gives rise to the epithelium of the anal canal below the pectinate line?

The surface ectoderm

23

What germ cell layer gives rise to the luminal epithelial derivatives, such as the lungs, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas?

The endoderm (other examples include the eustachian tube, thymus, and parathyroid)–the endoderm is the enternal layer

24

During fetal development, the notochord induces the ectoderm to form what other germ cell population?

The neuroectoderm

25

What germ cell layer is the notochord derived from?

The mesoderm

26

What is the only postnatal derivative of the notochord?

The nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc

27

An infant is born with a truncus arteriosus malformation; what germ layer is normally responsible for the aorticopulmonary septum?

Neural crest cells

28

An infant is born with vertebral defects, anal atresia, and limb defects. There is about defects in what other organ systems?

Cardiac, renal, tracheoesophageal (all mesoderm defects)

29

A neonate is born with defects in embryogenesis involving the mesodermal germ layer. What are some common abnormalities?

VACTERL = Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal defects, Limb defects (Middle/“Meat” layer)

30

A neonate is born with a malformed urethra. What germ layer gives rise to most of the urethra (derived from the urogenital sinus)?

The endoderm—however, the rest of the urogenital structures are derived from the mesoderm

31

A neonate is born with defects in the dermis, gut tube wall, connective tissue, and cardiovascular structures. What germ layer is involved?

The mesoderm

32

The ____ ____ ____ (germ layer) give(s) rise to the celiac ganglion, pia mater, and arachnoid mater.

Neural crest cells

33

The spinal cord is derived from which germ layer?

The ectoderm (neuroectoderm)