1c.Types of errors in organ morphogenesis- Teratogens- Fetal alcohol syndrome Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1c.Types of errors in organ morphogenesis- Teratogens- Fetal alcohol syndrome Deck (101):
1

An infant is born with a malformation-type error in organ morphogenesis. During what period of development can malformations occur?

Embryonic period (weeks 3–8), intrinsic disruption

2

You noticed structural abnormalities in a fetus due to compression by extrinsic mechanical forces. What type of morphogenesis error is this?

Deformation, which is due to extrinsic disruption after the embryonic period

3

You noticed the absence of both an organ and its primordial tissue in a fetus. What type of morphogenesis error is this?

Agenesis

4

You noticed total absence of an organ in a fetus, despite the primordial tissue being present. What type of morphogenesis error is this?

Aplasia

5

You noticed incomplete development of a fetal organ in the presence of its primordial tissue. How would you categorize this observation?

Hypoplasia

6

A fetus has entrapment of normal tissues by amniotic bands, causing secondary breakdown. What type of error in organ morphogenesis is this?

Disruption (the example given is amniotic band syndrome)

7

A neonate presents with abnormalities that resulted from a single embryologic event. What type of organ morphogenesis error is this?

Sequence (an example is oligohydramnios resulting in the Potter sequence)

8

What embryonic process is occurring when the fetus is most susceptible to teratogens?

Between the third and eighth weeks of pregnancy (organogenesis)

9

A fetus is exposed to a teratogen after 8 weeks of pregnancy; will organogenesis be affected?

No (typically after 8 weeks, growth and function are affected, but not organogenesis)

10

A woman is exposed to alcohol during her pregnancy. What might you expect to see in her child?

Birth defects and intellectual disability—fetal alcohol syndrome is possible

11

A pregnant woman is taking ACE inhibitors. This can lead to damage of what organ in the fetus?

The kidney

12

A 26-year-old woman regularly abuses a drug that her fetus may become addicted to. What three complications is she most at risk for?

This is cocaine, which can cause placental abruption, fetal addiction, and growth abnormalities

13

A young woman is diagnosed with clear cell carcinoma of the vagina. This cancer is associated with exposure to what teratogen in utero?

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

14

A fetus is exposed to an excess of iodine in utero. Name two teratogenic effects from this. How would iodine deficiency differ?

Congenital goiter and hypothyroidism (cretinism); iodine deficiency can cause the same two effects

15

A 23-year-old woman takes the acne treatment isotretinoin during pregnancy. What might result?

Multiple severe birth defects (contraception is mandatory when patients are on isotretinoin)

16

A boy has "flipper" limbs. Define this condition. What teratogen was he most likely exposed to in utero?

The defect is known as phocomelia or micromelia; thalidomide (limb defects with tha-limb-domide)

17

A 24-year-old woman refuses to quit smoking during her pregnancy. What are the consequences of tobacco use during pregnancy?

Preterm labor, intrauterine growth restriction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, placental problems, low birth weight

18

An infant is born with discolored teeth. What antibiotic was the fetus exposed to in utero?

Tetracyclines ("teethracyclines")

19

A woman undergoes chemotherapy with alkylating agents during her pregnancy; what fetal abnormalities are you concerned about?

Multiple anomalies, including absence of digits

20

An infant is exposed to aminoglycoside antibiotics in utero. What deficit should you test for?

Deafness (cranial nerve VIII toxicity) from aminoglycocide (a mean guy hit the baby in the ear)

21

What birth defects might occur in a pregnant woman taking valproate?

Valproate inhibits maternal folate absorption, which may cause neural tube defects (valproate inhibits folate absorption)

22

A 25-year-old bipolar woman gives birth to a child with a cardiac anomaly. What medication was she taking, and what is the anomaly?

Lithium; Ebstein anomaly (atrialized right ventricle)

23

A baby is born with sirenomelia. The defect is associated with what maternal condition?

Diabetes

24

A mother with poorly controlled diabetes may give birth to infants with which defects?

Caudal regression syndrome (anal atresia to sirenomelia), neural tube defects, congenital heart defects

25

A 23-year-old woman is exposed to a teratogen that lead shielding could have blocked. What birth defects might occur?

Microcephaly and intellectual disability (caused by exposure to x-rays)

26

A pregnant woman takes carbamazepine as her seizure medication. What birth defects are of concern?

Facial dysmorphism, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia, developmental delay, neural tube defects

27

A newborn presents with aplasia cutis congenita. What medication could cause this defect?

Methimazole (usually employed to treat hyperthyroidism)

28

A pregnant woman takes phenytoin. What birth defects might you expect to see in her newborn?

Fetal hydantoin syndrome (cleft palate, cardiac defects, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia)

29

A woman who smoked during pregnancy has a baby with low birth weight. What is the proposed mechanism behind this?

Nicotine causes vasoconstriction, and CO causes impaired oxygen delivery—smoking is leading cause of low birth weight in developed countries

30

A pregnant woman takes vitamin A in excess. What teratogenic effect does this have on her baby?

Extremely high risk for spontaneous abortions and birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac disease)

31

A pregnant woman does not consume enough iodine in her diet. What might you expect in her baby?

Congenital goiter or hypothyroidism (cretinism)—excessive iodine can also cause these defects

32

A neonate is born with congenital malformations. What is the leading cause of congenital malformations in the United States?

Fetal alcohol syndrome

33

A child carries a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. What findings are characteristic of fetal alcohol syndrome?

Congenital abnormalities: pre- and postnatal developmental retardation, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, limb dislocation, heart defects

34

A child has a smooth philtrum and hypertelorism. A heart defect is diagnosed. What is the proposed mechanism of his condition?

This is fetal alcohol syndrome, which is due to a failure of cell migration

35

A newborn is found to have a heart-lung fistula and holoprosencephaly. What substance was his mother likely abusing during pregnancy?

Alcohol (these defects are found in the most severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome)

36

A boy has "flipper" limbs. Define this condition. What teratogen was he most likely exposed to in utero?

The defect is known as phocomelia or micromelia; thalidomide (limb defects with tha-limb-domide)

37

You noticed incomplete development of a fetal organ in the presence of its primordial tissue. How would you categorize this observation?

Hypoplasia

38

A fetus has entrapment of normal tissues by amniotic bands, causing secondary breakdown. What type of error in organ morphogenesis is this?

Disruption (the example given is amniotic band syndrome)

39

A neonate presents with abnormalities that resulted from a single embryologic event. What type of organ morphogenesis error is this?

Sequence (an example is oligohydramnios resulting in the Potter sequence)

40

What embryonic process is occurring when the fetus is most susceptible to teratogens?

Between the third and eighth weeks of pregnancy (organogenesis)

41

A fetus is exposed to a teratogen after 8 weeks of pregnancy; will organogenesis be affected?

No (typically after 8 weeks, growth and function are affected, but not organogenesis)

42

A woman is exposed to alcohol during her pregnancy. What might you expect to see in her child?

Birth defects and intellectual disability—fetal alcohol syndrome is possible

43

A pregnant woman is taking ACE inhibitors. This can lead to damage of what organ in the fetus?

The kidney

44

A 26-year-old woman regularly abuses a drug that her fetus may become addicted to. What three complications is she most at risk for?

This is cocaine, which can cause placental abruption, fetal addiction, and growth abnormalities

45

A young woman is diagnosed with clear cell carcinoma of the vagina. This cancer is associated with exposure to what teratogen in utero?

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

46

A fetus is exposed to an excess of iodine in utero. Name two teratogenic effects from this. How would iodine deficiency differ?

Congenital goiter and hypothyroidism (cretinism); iodine deficiency can cause the same two effects

47

A 23-year-old woman takes the acne treatment isotretinoin during pregnancy. What might result?

Multiple severe birth defects (contraception is mandatory when patients are on isotretinoin)

48

A boy has "flipper" limbs. Define this condition. What teratogen was he most likely exposed to in utero?

The defect is known as phocomelia or micromelia; thalidomide (limb defects with tha-limb-domide)

49

A 24-year-old woman refuses to quit smoking during her pregnancy. What are the consequences of tobacco use during pregnancy?

Preterm labor, intrauterine growth restriction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, placental problems, low birth weight

50

An infant is born with discolored teeth. What antibiotic was the fetus exposed to in utero?

Tetracyclines ("teethracyclines")

51

A woman undergoes chemotherapy with alkylating agents during her pregnancy; what fetal abnormalities are you concerned about?

Multiple anomalies, including absence of digits

52

An infant is exposed to aminoglycoside antibiotics in utero. What deficit should you test for?

Deafness (cranial nerve VIII toxicity) from aminoglycocide (a mean guy hit the baby in the ear)

53

What birth defects might occur in a pregnant woman taking valproate?

Valproate inhibits maternal folate absorption, which may cause neural tube defects (valproate inhibits folate absorption)

54

A 25-year-old bipolar woman gives birth to a child with a cardiac anomaly. What medication was she taking, and what is the anomaly?

Lithium; Ebstein anomaly (atrialized right ventricle)

55

A baby is born with sirenomelia. The defect is associated with what maternal condition?

Diabetes

56

A mother with poorly controlled diabetes may give birth to infants with which defects?

Caudal regression syndrome (anal atresia to sirenomelia), neural tube defects, congenital heart defects

57

A 23-year-old woman is exposed to a teratogen that lead shielding could have blocked. What birth defects might occur?

Microcephaly and intellectual disability (caused by exposure to x-rays)

58

A pregnant woman takes carbamazepine as her seizure medication. What birth defects are of concern?

Facial dysmorphism, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia, developmental delay, neural tube defects

59

A newborn presents with aplasia cutis congenita. What medication could cause this defect?

Methimazole (usually employed to treat hyperthyroidism)

60

A pregnant woman takes phenytoin. What birth defects might you expect to see in her newborn?

Fetal hydantoin syndrome (cleft palate, cardiac defects, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia)

61

A woman who smoked during pregnancy has a baby with low birth weight. What is the proposed mechanism behind this?

Nicotine causes vasoconstriction, and CO causes impaired oxygen delivery—smoking is leading cause of low birth weight in developed countries

62

A pregnant woman takes vitamin A in excess. What teratogenic effect does this have on her baby?

Extremely high risk for spontaneous abortions and birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac disease)

63

A pregnant woman does not consume enough iodine in her diet. What might you expect in her baby?

Congenital goiter or hypothyroidism (cretinism)—excessive iodine can also cause these defects

64

A neonate is born with congenital malformations. What is the leading cause of congenital malformations in the United States?

Fetal alcohol syndrome

65

A child carries a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. What findings are characteristic of fetal alcohol syndrome?

Congenital abnormalities: pre- and postnatal developmental retardation, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, limb dislocation, heart defects

66

A child has a smooth philtrum and hypertelorism. A heart defect is diagnosed. What is the proposed mechanism of his condition?

This is fetal alcohol syndrome, which is due to a failure of cell migration

67

A newborn is found to have a heart-lung fistula and holoprosencephaly. What substance was his mother likely abusing during pregnancy?

Alcohol (these defects are found in the most severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome)

68

You noticed structural abnormalities in a fetus due to compression by extrinsic mechanical forces. What type of morphogenesis error is this?

Deformation, which is due to extrinsic disruption after the embryonic period

69

You noticed the absence of both an organ and its primordial tissue in a fetus. What type of morphogenesis error is this?

Agenesis

70

You noticed total absence of an organ in a fetus, despite the primordial tissue being present. What type of morphogenesis error is this?

Aplasia

71

You noticed incomplete development of a fetal organ in the presence of its primordial tissue. How would you categorize this observation?

Hypoplasia

72

A fetus has entrapment of normal tissues by amniotic bands, causing secondary breakdown. What type of error in organ morphogenesis is this?

Disruption (the example given is amniotic band syndrome)

73

A neonate presents with abnormalities that resulted from a single embryologic event. What type of organ morphogenesis error is this?

Sequence (an example is oligohydramnios resulting in the Potter sequence)

74

What embryonic process is occurring when the fetus is most susceptible to teratogens?

Between the third and eighth weeks of pregnancy (organogenesis)

75

A fetus is exposed to a teratogen after 8 weeks of pregnancy; will organogenesis be affected?

No (typically after 8 weeks, growth and function are affected, but not organogenesis)

76

A woman is exposed to alcohol during her pregnancy. What might you expect to see in her child?

Birth defects and intellectual disability—fetal alcohol syndrome is possible

77

A pregnant woman is taking ACE inhibitors. This can lead to damage of what organ in the fetus?

The kidney

78

A 26-year-old woman regularly abuses a drug that her fetus may become addicted to. What three complications is she most at risk for?

This is cocaine, which can cause placental abruption, fetal addiction, and growth abnormalities

79

A young woman is diagnosed with clear cell carcinoma of the vagina. This cancer is associated with exposure to what teratogen in utero?

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

80

A fetus is exposed to an excess of iodine in utero. Name two teratogenic effects from this. How would iodine deficiency differ?

Congenital goiter and hypothyroidism (cretinism); iodine deficiency can cause the same two effects

81

A 23-year-old woman takes the acne treatment isotretinoin during pregnancy. What might result?

Multiple severe birth defects (contraception is mandatory when patients are on isotretinoin)

82

A boy has "flipper" limbs. Define this condition. What teratogen was he most likely exposed to in utero?

The defect is known as phocomelia or micromelia; thalidomide (limb defects with tha-limb-domide)

83

A 24-year-old woman refuses to quit smoking during her pregnancy. What are the consequences of tobacco use during pregnancy?

Preterm labor, intrauterine growth restriction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, placental problems, low birth weight

84

An infant is born with discolored teeth. What antibiotic was the fetus exposed to in utero?

Tetracyclines ("teethracyclines")

85

A woman undergoes chemotherapy with alkylating agents during her pregnancy; what fetal abnormalities are you concerned about?

Multiple anomalies, including absence of digits

86

An infant is exposed to aminoglycoside antibiotics in utero. What deficit should you test for?

Deafness (cranial nerve VIII toxicity) from aminoglycocide (a mean guy hit the baby in the ear)

87

What birth defects might occur in a pregnant woman taking valproate?

Valproate inhibits maternal folate absorption, which may cause neural tube defects (valproate inhibits folate absorption)

88

A 25-year-old bipolar woman gives birth to a child with a cardiac anomaly. What medication was she taking, and what is the anomaly?

Lithium; Ebstein anomaly (atrialized right ventricle)

89

A baby is born with sirenomelia. The defect is associated with what maternal condition?

Diabetes

90

A mother with poorly controlled diabetes may give birth to infants with which defects?

Caudal regression syndrome (anal atresia to sirenomelia), neural tube defects, congenital heart defects

91

A 23-year-old woman is exposed to a teratogen that lead shielding could have blocked. What birth defects might occur?

Microcephaly and intellectual disability (caused by exposure to x-rays)

92

A pregnant woman takes carbamazepine as her seizure medication. What birth defects are of concern?

Facial dysmorphism, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia, developmental delay, neural tube defects

93

A newborn presents with aplasia cutis congenita. What medication could cause this defect?

Methimazole (usually employed to treat hyperthyroidism)

94

A pregnant woman takes phenytoin. What birth defects might you expect to see in her newborn?

Fetal hydantoin syndrome (cleft palate, cardiac defects, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia)

95

A woman who smoked during pregnancy has a baby with low birth weight. What is the proposed mechanism behind this?

Nicotine causes vasoconstriction, and CO causes impaired oxygen delivery—smoking is leading cause of low birth weight in developed countries

96

A pregnant woman takes vitamin A in excess. What teratogenic effect does this have on her baby?

Extremely high risk for spontaneous abortions and birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac disease)

97

A pregnant woman does not consume enough iodine in her diet. What might you expect in her baby?

Congenital goiter or hypothyroidism (cretinism)—excessive iodine can also cause these defects

98

A neonate is born with congenital malformations. What is the leading cause of congenital malformations in the United States?

Fetal alcohol syndrome

99

A child carries a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. What findings are characteristic of fetal alcohol syndrome?

Congenital abnormalities: pre- and postnatal developmental retardation, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, limb dislocation, heart defects

100

A child has a smooth philtrum and hypertelorism. A heart defect is diagnosed. What is the proposed mechanism of his condition?

This is fetal alcohol syndrome, which is due to a failure of cell migration

101

A newborn is found to have a heart-lung fistula and holoprosencephaly. What substance was his mother likely abusing during pregnancy?

Alcohol (these defects are found in the most severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome)