Flashcards in 1e.Aortic arch derivative-Branchial apparatus-Branchial cleft derivatives-Branchial arch derivatives-Branchial pouch derivatives-Cleft lip and cleft palate Deck (59):
Embryologically, the first aortic arch gives rise to part of what artery?
The maxillary artery, which is a branch of the external carotid artery (the first arch is maximal)
Embryologically, the second aortic arch gives rise to what two arteries?
The stapedial artery and the hyoid artery (Second = Stapedial)
Embryologically, the third aortic arch gives rise to which two arteries?
The Common Carotid and proximal internal Carotid (C is third letter of alphabet)
Embryologically, the fourth aortic arch on the left gives rise to what structure?
The aortic arch (4th arch [4 limbs] = systemic)
Embryologically, the fourth aortic arch on the right gives rise to what structure?
The proximal part of right subclavian artery (4th arch [4 limbs] = systemic)
Embryologically, the fifth aortic arch gives rise to which structures?
There is no fifth arch
Embryologically, the sixth aortic arch gives rise to what structure on both the right and the left?
Proximal part of the pulmonary arteries
Embryologically, the sixth aortic arch gives rise to the ____ ____ on the left side only.
Aortic arch derivatives develop into the ____ (arterial/venous) system.
Embryologically, what are the three components of the branchial (pharyngeal) apparatus?
Clefts, arches, and pouches
Embryologically, branchial clefts (also called branchial grooves) are derived from what primary germ layer?
Embryologically, branchial arches are derived from which two cell populations?
The mesoderm and the neural crest
A man has difficulty swallowing due to malformation of a pharyngeal muscle. Which embryologic tissue is likely involved?
Muscles and arteries of the branchial arches develop from mesoderm
A patient presents with a malformed hyoid bone, which is part of the pharyngeal apparatus. Which embryologic tissue is likely involved?
Neural crest cells form bones and cartilage of the branchial arches
Embryologically, branchial pouches are derived from what primary germ layer?
What are the branchial apparatus components from outside to inside?
Clefts, Arches, Pouches (CAP covers outside to inside)
A patient has trouble with hearing. Which branchial cleft is most likely to be involved?
The external auditory meatus is derived from the first branchial cleft—malformations would result in problems with hearing
The second to fourth branchial clefts develop into temporary ____, which are later obliterated by proliferation of second arch mesenchyme.
A patient is suspected as having a branchial cleft cyst. Where would you expect to find it on imaging?
On the lateral aspect of the neck, as it arises from a persistent cervical sinus
Embryologically, the thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids, cuneiform, and corniculate cartilages are derived from which branchial arches?
The fourth and sixth branchial arches—the fifth branchial arch makes no major developmental contributions
A patient has difficulty chewing due to a problem with her mandible. Which branchial arch is likely involved?
Meckel cartilage, including the Mandible, is derived from the first branchial arch
Embryologically, the cartilaginous derivatives from the second branchial arch are called what?
Reichert cartilage (Smile), which includes Stapes, Stylohyoid ligament, Styloid process, and lesser horn of hyoid
Embryologically, the third branchial arch is innervated by which cranial nerve?
Cranial nerve IX (pharynx) (Stylopharyngeus: Swallow stylishly)
Embryologically, the styloid process is derived from which branchial arch?
The second branchial arch
Embryologically, the greater horn of the hyoid derives from branchial arch #____, and the lesser horn derives from branchial arch #____.
Embryologically, the stylohyoid muscle derives from branchial arch #____; the stylopharyngeus muscle derives from branchial arch #____.
Which cartilages are derived from the fourth and sixth branchial arches?
Thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, corniculates, cuneiform
Embryologically, the mylohyoid is derived from which branchial arch?
The first branchial arch
What is the pathophysiology behind a congenital pharyngocutaneous fistula?
The persistence of a cleft and pouch creating a fistula between the tonsillar area and a cleft in the lateral neck
Embryologically, most pharyngeal constrictor muscles are derived from which branchial arch?
The fourth branchial arch
From which branchial arch is the anterior belly of the digastric muscle derived? From which is the posterior belly derived?
Which muscles are derived from the fourth branchial arch?
Most pharyngeal constrictors, the cricothyroid, the levator veli palatini
Which bones are derived from the second branchial arch (smile)?
The Stapes, Styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament
Which muscles are derived from the second branchial arch?
The muscles of facial expression (Smile), Stapedius, Stylohyoid, platySma, posterior belly of the digastric
Which muscles are derived from the sixth branchial arch?
All intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid
A child has mandibular hypoplasia and facial anomalies. Cells in his first branchial arch failed to migrate. What is this syndrome called?
Treacher Collins syndrome
The malleus derives from branchial arch #____; the incus derives from branchial arch #____; the stapes derives from branchial arch #____.
1, 1, 2
The levator veli palatini derives from branchial arch #____; the tensor veli palatini derives from branchial arch #____.
The muscles of facial expression derive from branchial arch #____; the muscles of mastication derive from branchial arch #____.
Embryologically, the stapedius is derived from branchial arch #____; the tensor tympani is derived from branchial arch #____.
The posterior third of the tongue derives from branchial arches #____ and #____.
The temporalis, masseter, and pterygoid muscles, derived from the first branchial arch, are innervated by which two cranial nerve branches?
Cranial nerve branches V2 and V3
The muscles of facial expression, which are derived from the second branchial arch, are innervated by which cranial nerve?
Cranial nerve VII (facial expression)
Cranial nerve X innervates derivatives of which two branchial arches?
4th arch (superior laryngeal branch) and 6th arch (recurrent laryngeal branch)
A patient has difficulty swallowing. An issue was found with the stylopharyngeus muscle. A problem with which nerve is likely to blame?
The glossopharyngeal nerve (CN XI) of the 3rd branchial arch (think of stylopharyngeus innervated by glossopharyngeal nerve)
What is unique about the cranial nerves derived from the branchial arches?
These are the only ones with both sensory and motor components (exception is V2, derived from 1st arch, which is sensory only)
What are the derivatives of the first branchial pouch?
The middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells (endoderm-lined structures of the ear)
Embryologically, the epithelial lining of the palatine tonsils are derived from which branchial pouch?
Second branchial pouch
Embryologically, the inferior parathyroid glands are derived from which branchial pouch?
The dorsal wings of the third branchial pouch (third-pouch structures end up below fourth-pouch structures)
Which branchial pouch is the thymus derived from?
The ventral wings of the third branchial pouch (third-pouch structures end up below fourth-pouch structures)
Embryologically, the superior parathyroid glands are derived from which branchial pouch?
The dorsal wings of the fourth branchial pouch (third-pouch structures end up below fourth-pouch structures)
The superior parathyroid glands derive from the ____ branchial pouch; the inferior parathyroid glands derive from the ____ branchial pouch.
A newborn is found to have aberrant development of the third and fourth branchial pouches. What syndrome could result from this defect?
A newborn has cardiac defects, hypocalcemia, and frequent infections. Name the disorder and the glands affected.
DiGeorge syndrome: parathyroid and thymus glands leading to T-lymphocyte deficiency, due to aberrant development of 3rd and 4th pouches
A newborn is found to have thymic aplasia and lack of parathyroid development. What cardiac defects might also be present?
Conotruncal anomalies, which are associated with DiGeorge syndrome
A hypertensive woman is found to have multiple masses in her neck glands and adrenal medullae. Name this disorder and the germline mutation.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A with pheochromocytoma, parathyroid tumors, and medullary thyroid cancer, RET germline mutation
After a hypertensive emergency, a patient is found to have MEN type 2A. What pharyngeal pouches are affected in her neck?
Parathyroid tumors in 3rd/4th pouches and parafollicular cells (medullary thyroid cancer, from neural crest cells) in 4th/5th pouches
A scientist alters an embryo such that its 5th branchial arch does not form. Much to his surprise, the embryo grows normally. What happened?
The 5th branchial arch makes no major developmental contributions—thus, normal development would be expected