Flashcards in 2/3 - Social Constructions/Variations and Sexual Coercion Deck (88):
What elements of our sexuality are socially constructed? (7)
- Physical pleasure/desire
Why should we explore the social construction of sexuality?
- To begin to understand our sex, gender and sexuality as situated within a societal/cultural context
- To enhance our conceptualization of sexual health beyond a limited disease based perspective
- To embrace a holistic perspective of sexuality
- To enhance sexual well being (eg. pleasurable and safe sexual experience)
- To inform policies and programs aimed at enhancing sexual well being
How is sexuality socially constructed?
- Social institutions creating rules that govern the who, what when, where and how of sexuality in a given society
- The mechanisms of institutionalization include a social consensus on the realness and rightness of the construction and socialization process by which people acquire this definition of reality
How are societal norms and beliefs learned over the life course?
Through the socialization process, where we are active agents (not merely recipients) in constructing social norms, perspectives and expectations within society
What are the four perspectives on abnormal sexual behaviour?
What does the DSM IV-TR define a paraphilia as?
Recurrent intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviour, involving non-human objects, the suffering or humiliation of onesulf or one's partner, children or other non consenting person.
What are 8 examples of paraphilias?
- Transvestic fetishism
- Sexual sadism
- Sexual masochism
When do sexual behaviours become abnormal on the normal-abnormal continuum?
When they become a necessity
When do sexual behaviours become a paraphilia on the normal-abnormal continuum?
When they become a substitute for a human partner (far right of the continuum)
What is compulsive sexual behaviour?
A disorder in which the person experiences intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges and associated sexual behaviour
What is Carne's four step cycle of sexual addictions and compulsions?
- Compulsive sexual behaviour
Is addiction or compulsion more likely?
Sexual compulsions are more likely than addictions
What is fetishism?
A person's sexual fixation on some object other than another human being and attachment of great erotic significance to that object
How does learning theory explain fetishists?
Classical conditioning to an object as sexual
How does cognitive theory explain fetishists?
Perception of arousal is distorted
How does additication theory explain fetishists?
Carnes 4-step cycle
What is transvestism?
Dressing as member of the other gender for erotic purposes
What are female impersonators?
Men who dress as women, often as part of an entertainment job
What is a sadist?
A person who derives sexual satisfaction from inflicting pain
What is a masochist?
A person who derives sexual satisfaction from experiencing pain
What does BDSM stand for?
Bondage and discipline sadomasochism
What is a voyeurist?
Someone who becomes seuxally aroused from secretly viewing a woman, who is a stranger, undress
What type of person is mostly likely to be a voyeurist?
The youngest child in a family with good relationship with parents and few friends.
Rarely married and seldom have female friends
What is scoptophilia?
The sexual pleasure derived from observing sexual acts and the genitals
What is exhibitionism?
Exposing genitals to others in inappropriate situations
What is an illegal form abnormal sexual behaviour?
How does social learning theory explain exhibitionism?
Parents may have modeled such behaviour and it could be reinforced by getting attention
What is a high level of sex drive in women called?
What is an excessive sex drive in men called?
Satyriasis or Don Juanism
What is an excessive, insatiable sex drive in either a man or a woman called? What does this often lead to?
Often leads to compulsive sexual behaviour
What is the desire to induce in oneself a state of oxygen deficiency in order to create sexual arousal or to enhance excitement and orgasm called?
What are 6 characteristics (according to Griffith) of cybersex use and abuse?
- Mood modification
- Withdrawal symptoms
What is the desire to damage or soil a woman or her clothes called?
What is sexual pleasure from contact with feces called?
What is frotteurism?
Rubbing one's genitals against nonconsenting person
What is sexual satisfaction from contact with urine called?
What is sexual contact with a dead person called?
What is bestiality called?
When does zoophilia most commonly occur?
Experimentation during adolescence, not by self-acknowledges zoophiles
What is a reason that zoophiles give for having sex with animals?
Their desire for affection and pleasure
What is a difference between zoophiles and bestialists?
Zoophiles say they are concerned for the animal's welfare
What are two medical treatments for sexual variations?
- Surgical castration
- Hormone treatment (MPA)
What is drug treatment for sexual variations called?
What are four cognitive-behavioural treatments for sexual variations?
- Behaviour therapy
- Social skills training
- Modification of distorted thinking
- Relapse prevention
What was the legal definition of rape prior to 1983?
- Heterosexual intercourse by a man with a woman who was not his wife
What was criticism for the definition of rape prior to 1983?
- No provisions for male as a victim and female assailant
- No provisions for spousal rape
- Victim's past sexual history could be put on trial
- Charge of rape required corroboration (physical evidence)
- Rape complaints had to be made immediately after the attack
What are two types of sexual assault?
- Simple sexual assault
- With a weapon, threats or bodily harm (aggravated assault)
When can consent not be given?
- If the complainant is drunk
- Showing signs of disagreement
- Changes their mind
How many women over 18 have been sexually assaulted by a man since the age of 16?
5% in the past two months
6% report the assault
What is the most likely type of rape to be reported?
What percent of men report forced sex by men and women?
2% by men
1% by women
What does sexual assault, section 271 state?
Somebody touches you in a sexual way on purpose, directly or indirectly, without your consent.
What does section 272 (Sexual assault with a weapon, threats to a third party or causing bodily harm) state?
Sexual assault with a weapon, threats to a third party or causing bodily harm.
Somebody sexually assaults you and is armed with, or uses, a weapon, or forces you to have sex by threatening to do injury to somebody else or you
What is section 273, aggravated sexual assault?
Somebody sexually assaults you and they cause serious injuries to you
What is the legal age of consent in Canada?
What did the federal government do in 2008 with consent laws?
Raised the age of consent from 14 to 16
What does section 151 of the law (sexual interference) state?
If you are under 16, it is a criminal offence for someone to touch you body for a sexual purpose with a part of their body or any object, directly or indirectly.
What does section 152 (invitation to sexual touching) of the law state?
If you are under 16 years old, it is a criminal offence for someone to invite, counsel or incite you to touch, directly or indirectly, their body, the body of someone else or your own body, for a sexual purpose.
What does section 153 of the law (sexual exploitation) state?
If you are 16 years or older, but under 18, it is a criminal offence for someone in a position of trust or authority to have sexual contact with you. Even if you consent to it.
What does section 173.2 of the law (indecent acts) state?
If you are under 16 years old, it is a criminal offence for someone to expose his/her genitals to you for a sexual purpose
True or false? If you are mentally or physically challenged (any age), it is a criminal offence if, without your consent, someone invites, counsels or incites you to touch, directly or indirectly, their body, the body of someone else or your own body for a sexual purpose.
At what age does the sexual exploitation of persons with a disability law come into affect?
If you are 14 or 15 years old, who can you give consent to?
Someone who is less than five years older than you
When is anal intercourse illegal?
- Under 18 and not married
- In private/public with more than two people (any age)
What percent of female university and college students experienced sexual coercion in the past year?
What are some possible causes of miscommunications by sexually aggressive men? Which one is most supported by research?
- Lack of competence in reading women's negative emotions
- Failure to make subtle distinctions between friendliness and seductiveness
- Sexually predatory behaviour
- Suspicious schema - doubt honesty of women's communication/rejection (most supported by research)
What is a rufy? What does it look like?
Small round and white, newer are oval and green-gray.
The effects are felt within 30 minutes and can last for several hours. Might look drunk.
What is the liquid with no odor or color/white pill or powder that can be a little salty and takes effect in about 15 minutes?
GHB Gamma hydroxybutyric
Which sexual assault drug is easiest to overdose on?
GHB Gamma hydroxybutyric
What is ketamine?
Comes as a liquid and a white powder. Very fast acting.
Makes you aware, but paralyzed and inability to remember
What is anger rape?
Venting rage and contempt for women, usually injures the victim and typically does not orgasm. A type of stranger rape.
What are three kinds of stranger rape?
- Anger rape
- Power rape
- Sadistic rape
What is power rape?
- Focus on control
- Usually planned
- Repetitive and increase in frequency
- Rapist feels insecure
What is sadistic rape?
- Ritualistic violence
- Heavy use of violent pornography
What is male rape?
- Perpetrated by two or more adults against a younger man
- Focus on humiliation and degradation
- Higher levels of physical damage to victims body
- Frequently occurs in prisons
How many lesbians and gay men report forced sex?
12% gay men
What are three theories related to causes of sexual assault?
- Victim precipitated (victim blaming)
- Socialization (cultured values, gender roles, pornography etc.)
What are five factors associated with sexually aggressive heterosexual men?
- Violent home environment
- Predatory orientation (perception of enhanced self esteem)
- Hostile masculine personality
- Lack of empathy/self centered
What are six attitudinal barriers to addressing sexual assault?
- Minimization (demean the person who complains)
- Directionality (Men may feel defensive or ashamed and women may feel protective of men present)
- Trivialization (media, especially porn, has normalized aggressive sexual behaviour)
- Collusion (victim blaming)
- Meth of female masochism (rape myths)
- Psychopathology (belief that perpetrators are mentally ill)
What is minimization?
Demeaning the person who complains or 'makes a fuss'
What is directionality in the context of sexual assault?
Men may feel defensive or ashamed and women may feel protective of men present
What is trivialization in the context of sexual assault?
media, especially porn, has normalized aggressive sexual behaviour
What is collusion?
What is the myth of female masochism?
Rape myths, perpetuate notion that women enjoy physical and emotion pain connected with sex.
What is psychopathology? Why is it dangerous?
The belief that perpetrators are mentally ill. Protects us from having to face the true causes of sexual assault - embedded in social norms.
What is a paraphilia?
Recurring unconventional sexual behaviour that is obsessive and compuslive
What are two types of fetishes?
- Media fetish (eg. leather or fur)
- Form fetish (eg. shoes or bananas)