2. Adrenal cortex and medulla Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2. Adrenal cortex and medulla Deck (17):
1

adrenal embryology - derived from

adrenal cortex is derived from mesoderm
adrenal medulla is derived from neural crest

2

adrenal cortex zones ( from outer to inner) and what they producr

mnemonic GFR
Zona Gromerulosa --> aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata --> cortisol + sex hormones
Zona Reticularis --> sex hormone

3

adrenal medulla histology and embryology

chromaffin cells - from neural crest

4

adrenal medulla - secretory products

catecholamines ( epinephrine, norepinephrine)

5

adrenal medulla - primary regulatory control

preganglionic sympathetic fibers

6

adrenal cortex zones ( from outer to inner) and regulated by

Zona Gromerulosa --> renin-angiotensin
Zona Fasciculata --> ACTH, CRH
Zona Reticularis --> ACTH, CRH

7

most common tumor in adrenal medulla in adults and in childern

adults : pheochromocytoma
children : neuroblastoma

8

pheochromocytoma vs neuroblastoma according hypertension

pheochromocytoma: episodic
neuroblastoma : rare

9

sex hormones are secreted by

zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of adrenal cortex

10

• Name the three zones of the adrenal cortex, from outermost to innermost.

Zona Glomerulosa, zona Fasciculata, zona Reticularis (GFR corresponds to Salt [Na+], Sugar [glucocorticoids], and Sex [androgens])

11

A man presents with episodic palpitations and hypertension. You suspect a tumor. What is the most common adrenal medulla tumor in adults?

Pheochromocytoma

12

• A 10 y/o boy presents with an abdominal mass. Imaging shows an adrenal tumor. What is the likely diagnosis? Is there episodic hypertension?

Neuroblastoma, the most common adrenal tumor in children; no (unlike pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma rarely causes episodic hypertension)

13

• A woman is startled and experiences diaphoresis as a result of catecholamine release. What stimulated this release?

ACh from preganglionic sympathetic fibers innervating the adrenal medulla, the site of catecholamine (epinephrine, norepinephrine) release

14

• Which part of the adrenal gland is derived from the same cells as melanocytes?

Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla

15

• A patient has congenital aplasia of her adrenal cortex. From what embryologic tissue did this dysfunction arise?

Adrenal cortex is derived from mesoderm. Adrenal medulla is derived from neural crest cells

16

• Aldosterone output is regulated by the ___ system; cortisol output by ___ and ___; ___ output in the zona reticularis by ACTH and CRH.

Renin-angiotensin; ACTH, CRH; sex hormone (e.g., androgens)

17

• A pt presents with HTN and low plasma renin activity. Which region of which gland is secreting the product directly causing these symptoms?

Zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex; presentation is consistent with hyperaldosteronism