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Flashcards in 2. Adrenal cortex and medulla Deck (17)

adrenal embryology - derived from

adrenal cortex is derived from mesoderm
adrenal medulla is derived from neural crest


adrenal cortex zones ( from outer to inner) and what they producr

mnemonic GFR
Zona Gromerulosa --> aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata --> cortisol + sex hormones
Zona Reticularis --> sex hormone


adrenal medulla histology and embryology

chromaffin cells - from neural crest


adrenal medulla - secretory products

catecholamines ( epinephrine, norepinephrine)


adrenal medulla - primary regulatory control

preganglionic sympathetic fibers


adrenal cortex zones ( from outer to inner) and regulated by

Zona Gromerulosa --> renin-angiotensin
Zona Fasciculata --> ACTH, CRH
Zona Reticularis --> ACTH, CRH


most common tumor in adrenal medulla in adults and in childern

adults : pheochromocytoma
children : neuroblastoma


pheochromocytoma vs neuroblastoma according hypertension

pheochromocytoma: episodic
neuroblastoma : rare


sex hormones are secreted by

zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of adrenal cortex


• Name the three zones of the adrenal cortex, from outermost to innermost.

Zona Glomerulosa, zona Fasciculata, zona Reticularis (GFR corresponds to Salt [Na+], Sugar [glucocorticoids], and Sex [androgens])


A man presents with episodic palpitations and hypertension. You suspect a tumor. What is the most common adrenal medulla tumor in adults?



• A 10 y/o boy presents with an abdominal mass. Imaging shows an adrenal tumor. What is the likely diagnosis? Is there episodic hypertension?

Neuroblastoma, the most common adrenal tumor in children; no (unlike pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma rarely causes episodic hypertension)


• A woman is startled and experiences diaphoresis as a result of catecholamine release. What stimulated this release?

ACh from preganglionic sympathetic fibers innervating the adrenal medulla, the site of catecholamine (epinephrine, norepinephrine) release


• Which part of the adrenal gland is derived from the same cells as melanocytes?

Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla


• A patient has congenital aplasia of her adrenal cortex. From what embryologic tissue did this dysfunction arise?

Adrenal cortex is derived from mesoderm. Adrenal medulla is derived from neural crest cells


• Aldosterone output is regulated by the ___ system; cortisol output by ___ and ___; ___ output in the zona reticularis by ACTH and CRH.

Renin-angiotensin; ACTH, CRH; sex hormone (e.g., androgens)


• A pt presents with HTN and low plasma renin activity. Which region of which gland is secreting the product directly causing these symptoms?

Zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex; presentation is consistent with hyperaldosteronism