Flashcards in 2 & 3 - The Party & Reforming China Deck (62):
How many Bolsheviks made up the orthodox group?
What were the key concepts of Mao Thought?
Self reliance, incessant hard work, continue the revolution, class struggle, mass mobilisation
How many parties allowed in China initially?
Who was State Premier?
Where did new democratic ideas come from?
What was party membership in 1949?
What was a danwei?
A work group
What was the iron rice bowl?
People who worked for the government and military were given jobs for life
How many members did the PLA have in 1953?
What does Lao Gai mean?
Reform through labour
What is Chang and Halliday's estimate for death toll in labour camps?
When were residency permits given out?
By when were prostitution and drug dealing practically wiped out?
What was the focus of the October 1950 campaign?
Suppression of counter revolutionaries
When did the 3 Antis Start?
1951 in Manchuria
What did the Three Antis target?
Corruption, waste and obstructionist bureaucracy
When were the 5 Antis Launched?
When were Gao Gang and Rao Shushi purged?
What was party membership by December 1950?
What happened to foreigners by 1950?
Left or thrown out, apart from Soviets. China closed to Western influence
What was the Suppression of Counter-revolutionaries Campaign?
Campaign launched in Oct 1950, lasted over a year. Targeted anyone with GMD links, 'bandits' and members of religious sects.
How many people did the authorities claim to have evidence against in major cities?
40k; in Guandong 52k 'bandits' and 89k other criminals were caught, with 28k executed.
When/where was the Three Antis Campaign launched?
Manchuria (initially) in late 1951
Who did the Three Antis target and what for?
Managers, state officials and party members. For corruption, waste and obstructionist bureaucracy
When was the Five Antis Campaign launched?
Who did the Five Antis Campaign target and why?
Bourgeoisie; bribery, tax evasion, theft of state property, economic espionage and cheating government contracts
How many mass meetings were there in Shanghai in Feb 1952/
What was the result for those found guilty during the Five Antis?
Enormous fines, property confiscation and being sent to labour camps
How many people are estimated to have taken their own lives due to the Anti campaigns?
Who was responsible for directing the First Five Year Plan?
Believing that he had Mao's backing, who's position did Gang attempt to take?
What did Deng Xiaoping say about Rao Shushi and Gao Gang at the Politburo meeting in December 1953?
Accused them of attempting to build independent kingdoms in their regions and of 'underground activities'
What happened to Rao and Gao after the December 1953 Politburo meeting?
Gao committed suicide in early 1954, Rao died in prison around 20 years later
What percentage of the Chinese population were peasants in 1950?
How many landlords are estimated to have died during the land reforms of the 1950s?
700,000 (official) - 3million (Chiang and Halliday)
How many cadres were sent to 'key point' villages?
30-40 - working with local peasants' associations
What were mutual aid teams?
Groupings of around 10 families that shared labour and equipment
What percentage of people in 1922 in universities were women?
What did the Communists outlaw in the 1930s in Jiangxi? (women)
Arranged marriage and the purchase of wives. Divorce was made easier and women given the right to vote
When was the New Marriage Law passed?
What did the New Marriage Law do?
Outlawed arranged marriages and the payment of dowries. Banned concubinage and gave divorced/unmarried/widowed women the right to vote
How many schools were ran by British or American organisations and Christian foundations?
What percentage of children attended primary school prior to communist takeover?
20% (pre 1949)
Why did Mao oppose Western intervention in Chinese schools?
Said it was cultural imperialism
What percentage of children ages 7-16 were in education in 1956 and how did this change in the next 20 years?
Less than 50%, went up to 96%
In 1952, what percentage of the budget was made up by state education and culture?
How were universities reformed?
Focused on technical and scientific subjects. Many were sent to study in the USSR
How was perspective on healthcare changed?
Changed from curative to preventative
What was the Patriotic Health Act designed to do?
Improve sanitation and hygiene in order to reduce diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever
What was schistomiasis?
A disease that caused internal bleeding, liver damage and bloated abdomen which was caused by a microscopic worm carried by snails
What sort of healthcare system was adopted in rural areas?
How was healthcare dealt with in villages?
Village health centres provided paramedics. Out-patient and in-patient healthcare was provided for less serious cases. The most seriously ill were taken to county hospitals with fully trained doctors
What percentage of the 1952 budget did healthcare make up?
What were dan weis?
Work units that controlled allocation of housing, grain and cloth, issued permits
How many conscripts did the CPC get every year by 1950?
What percentage of the budget did the PLA make up in 1950?
How many members did the PLA have in 1950?
What were Mao's revolutionary values?
Discipline, self sacrifice, endurance and perseverance
What were demilitarised PLA units used in?
Mass mobilisation, solely for constuction
What was Resist America and Aid Korea?
Involvement in Korean War in October 1950, suspicion of westerners - who had all been driven out by the end of 1950, institutions with Western links were under suspicion, confiscation of items such as radios and weapons
What percentage of the CPC did Mao say should be women?