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Flashcards in 2 & 3 - The Party & Reforming China Deck (62):
0

How many Bolsheviks made up the orthodox group?

28

1

What were the key concepts of Mao Thought?

Self reliance, incessant hard work, continue the revolution, class struggle, mass mobilisation

2

How many parties allowed in China initially?

14

3

Who was State Premier?

Zhou Enlai

4

Where did new democratic ideas come from?

Yanan

5

What was party membership in 1949?

4.5mil

6

What was a danwei?

A work group

7

What was the iron rice bowl?

People who worked for the government and military were given jobs for life

8

How many members did the PLA have in 1953?

3.5mil

9

What does Lao Gai mean?

Reform through labour

10

What is Chang and Halliday's estimate for death toll in labour camps?

27million

11

When were residency permits given out?

Summer 1951

12

By when were prostitution and drug dealing practically wiped out?

1953

13

What was the focus of the October 1950 campaign?

Suppression of counter revolutionaries

14

When did the 3 Antis Start?

1951 in Manchuria

15

What did the Three Antis target?

Corruption, waste and obstructionist bureaucracy

16

When were the 5 Antis Launched?

Jan 1952

17

When were Gao Gang and Rao Shushi purged?

1953

18

What was party membership by December 1950?

5.8million

19

What happened to foreigners by 1950?

Left or thrown out, apart from Soviets. China closed to Western influence

20

What was the Suppression of Counter-revolutionaries Campaign?

Campaign launched in Oct 1950, lasted over a year. Targeted anyone with GMD links, 'bandits' and members of religious sects.

21

How many people did the authorities claim to have evidence against in major cities?

40k; in Guandong 52k 'bandits' and 89k other criminals were caught, with 28k executed.

22

When/where was the Three Antis Campaign launched?

Manchuria (initially) in late 1951

23

Who did the Three Antis target and what for?

Managers, state officials and party members. For corruption, waste and obstructionist bureaucracy

24

When was the Five Antis Campaign launched?

Jan 1952

25

Who did the Five Antis Campaign target and why?

Bourgeoisie; bribery, tax evasion, theft of state property, economic espionage and cheating government contracts

26

How many mass meetings were there in Shanghai in Feb 1952/

3,000

27

What was the result for those found guilty during the Five Antis?

Enormous fines, property confiscation and being sent to labour camps

28

How many people are estimated to have taken their own lives due to the Anti campaigns?

2-3 million

29

Who was responsible for directing the First Five Year Plan?

Gao Gang

30

Believing that he had Mao's backing, who's position did Gang attempt to take?

Zhou Enlai

31

What did Deng Xiaoping say about Rao Shushi and Gao Gang at the Politburo meeting in December 1953?

Accused them of attempting to build independent kingdoms in their regions and of 'underground activities'

32

What happened to Rao and Gao after the December 1953 Politburo meeting?

Gao committed suicide in early 1954, Rao died in prison around 20 years later

33

What percentage of the Chinese population were peasants in 1950?

90%

34

How many landlords are estimated to have died during the land reforms of the 1950s?

700,000 (official) - 3million (Chiang and Halliday)

35

How many cadres were sent to 'key point' villages?

30-40 - working with local peasants' associations

36

What were mutual aid teams?

Groupings of around 10 families that shared labour and equipment

37

What percentage of people in 1922 in universities were women?

2.5%

38

What did the Communists outlaw in the 1930s in Jiangxi? (women)

Arranged marriage and the purchase of wives. Divorce was made easier and women given the right to vote

39

When was the New Marriage Law passed?

1950

40

What did the New Marriage Law do?

Outlawed arranged marriages and the payment of dowries. Banned concubinage and gave divorced/unmarried/widowed women the right to vote

41

How many schools were ran by British or American organisations and Christian foundations?

31 Britain/USA
32 Christian

42

What percentage of children attended primary school prior to communist takeover?

20% (pre 1949)

43

Why did Mao oppose Western intervention in Chinese schools?

Said it was cultural imperialism

44

What percentage of children ages 7-16 were in education in 1956 and how did this change in the next 20 years?

Less than 50%, went up to 96%

45

In 1952, what percentage of the budget was made up by state education and culture?

6.4%

46

How were universities reformed?

Focused on technical and scientific subjects. Many were sent to study in the USSR

47

How was perspective on healthcare changed?

Changed from curative to preventative

48

What was the Patriotic Health Act designed to do?

Improve sanitation and hygiene in order to reduce diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever

49

What was schistomiasis?

A disease that caused internal bleeding, liver damage and bloated abdomen which was caused by a microscopic worm carried by snails

50

What sort of healthcare system was adopted in rural areas?

Three tier

51

How was healthcare dealt with in villages?

Village health centres provided paramedics. Out-patient and in-patient healthcare was provided for less serious cases. The most seriously ill were taken to county hospitals with fully trained doctors

52

What percentage of the 1952 budget did healthcare make up?

1.3%

53

What were dan weis?

Work units that controlled allocation of housing, grain and cloth, issued permits

54

How many conscripts did the CPC get every year by 1950?

800,000

55

What percentage of the budget did the PLA make up in 1950?

41%

56

How many members did the PLA have in 1950?

5,000,000

57

What were Mao's revolutionary values?

Discipline, self sacrifice, endurance and perseverance

58

What were demilitarised PLA units used in?

Mass mobilisation, solely for constuction

59

What was Resist America and Aid Korea?

Involvement in Korean War in October 1950, suspicion of westerners - who had all been driven out by the end of 1950, institutions with Western links were under suspicion, confiscation of items such as radios and weapons

60

What percentage of the CPC did Mao say should be women?

25%

61

What were Mao's mass political campaigns?

Resist America and Aid Korea, Suppression of counter revolutionaries, Three Antis, Five Antis