(2) Chapter 9- Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (2) Chapter 9- Joints Deck (37):
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Synarthroses

Very little or no movement, immovable joints
Ex. Fibrous joints and cartilaginous joints

1

Amphiarthrosis

Slightly movable joint
Ex. Intervertebral discs

2

Diarthrosis

Freely movable joint
Ex. Shoulder and hip joints, arthro-joint

3

Ligaments

Binds bone to bone, serves as intrinsic binding structures of the joint itself

4

Tendons

Muscle to bone

5

Sprain

Affects the ligaments

6

Strain

Affects the muscles

7

Fibrous joints

Aka synarthrosis.
3 Ex: sutures, syndesmoses, interosseous membranes

8

Syndesmoses

Specific type of joint for an interosseous membrane (ex. Btwn fibula and tibia)

9

Gomphosis

Joint that connects tooth to alveolar processes

10

Synovial joint

Range from slightly movable (btwn carpal bones) to the most mobile joints of the body (at the shoulder)

11

Cartilaginous joints (2 kinds)

Synchondroses, symphyses

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Synchondroses

Immovable, cartilaginous joint where connecting material is hyaline cartilage (ex. Epiphyseal growth plates)

13

Symphyses

Cartilaginous joint where the ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage
Ex. Pubic symphysis

14

Synovial joints

Aka diarthrosis
Lightly movable to the most freely movable joints in the body

15

Articular cartilage

Lubricated by synovial fluid to reduce friction and helps absorb shock

16

Articular capsule

Surrounds the external portion of the synovial joint, synovial cavity and unites the articulating bones
2 kinds- fibrous membrane and synovial membrane

17

Fibrous membrane

Attaches to periosteum of the articulating bones giving considerable movement at the joint and great tensile strength to prevent dislocation

18

Synovial membrane

Elastic fibers with adipose issue

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Synovial fluid

Viscous, clear to pale-yellowish fluid consisting of hyaluronic acid. Lubricates and absorbs shock. Supplies oxygen and nutrients to chondrocytes within articular cartilage and removes waste and CO2

20

Bursae

Saclike structures that alleviate friction around some joints (shoulder and knee)
Similar to synovial joints due to walls consisting of fibrous membrane lined with synovial membrane but not a part of a synovial joint

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Tendon sheath

Reduce friction to joints, tube-like bursae wrapped around tendons. Protects all sides of tendon from friction. Tendons of biceps, brachii, wrist, ankles, fingers, and toes

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6 types of synovial joints

Planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball and socket

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Planar joints

Biaxial and triaxial, Ex: between navicular and 2nd and 3rd cuneiforms

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Hinge joints

Uniaxial. Ex-elbow

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Pivot joints

Uniaxial. Ex-head of radius and radial notch or ulna

26

Condyloid joints

Biaxial. Ex- radius and scaphoid and lunate bone or carpus

27

Saddle joint

Biaxial. Ex- joint between trapezium of carpus and metacarpal of thumb

28

Ball and socket joints

Triaxial. Ex- shoulder and hip joint

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3 types of synovial joint movement

Gliding, angular, and special movements

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Gliding

Type of synovial joint movement, Biaxial.

31

Angular

Type of synovial joint movement
Flexion/extension, lateral flexion, hyperextension, abduction/addiction, circumduction

32

Special movements

Type of synovial joint movement
Elevation/depression, protraction/retraction, inversion/eversion, dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, supination/pronation, opposition (pinky to thumb)

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6 factors that affect contact and range of motion at synovial joints

Structure of articulating surfaces
Strength and tension of joint ligaments
Arrangement and tension of muscles
Contact of soft parts
Hormones
Disuse

34

Osteoarthritis

Most common type. Degenerative joint disease where joint cartilage gradually reduces. Joints stiff during sleep, but gradually get better with increased movement

35

Rheumatoid arthritis

Autoimmune disease. Inflammation of synovial membrane causing pain, swelling, loss of function. More activity causes increased pain

36

Gouty arthritis

Deposit of sodium ur are crystals in the soft tissues of joints. Affects joints in feet, especially base of big toe, more common in males. Crystals irritate and erode the cartilage causing inflammation, swelling, and acute pain