Flashcards in 2- Constitutional/Developmental Factors in Stuttering Deck (18):
What were shown in twin studies on stuttering?
- greater concordance between identical than fraternal
- still lots of discordance
- CLIN: home environment influences stuttering & recovery
What were shown in adoption studies on stuttering?
- high incidence of stuttering in biological vs adoptive am
- CLIN: stuttering is not contagious
What is known about brain structure and stuttering?
- stutterers have more activity on right side than non-stutterers
- more left-side activation most-treatment
- deactivation left auditory cortex during stuttering
- less dense fibres in white matter tracts
What is altered feedback?
A distraction, causes stutteresto change how they talk to compensate for defective auditory monitoring.
What is known about temperament in stuttering?
- stutterers have more sensitive/inhibited temperament
- leads to avoidance, withdraw, arrest of action
What's the computer analogy for stuttering?
- competition for resources means brainpower is split
- computer can do many things at once but gets slower
- more similar tasks have more interference
What is known about physical and motor development?
- when infants learn new speech skills, postpone their motor development
- learning speech motor control takes a lot of resources
In what two ways does cognitive development affect stuttering?
1) Influence of cognitive growth
2) Development of self-evaluation
What is known about childhood reactions to stuttering?
- between ages 3&4, children begin to internalize standards of behaviour
- evaluate themselves compared to others
- experience embarrassment, shame, guilt
- by age 4, kids prefer fluent speech in puppets
What social/emotional factors cause the most stuttering?
"Excitement over own activity". Threats to feelings of security cause emotional stress.
What is known about parents related to stuttering?
- children are hypersensitive to parental concern
- picking up on parental dismay leads to self consciousness
- some parents may be more critical
What is known about the speech and language environment relating to fluency?
- complex speech/rapid speech rate causes disfluency
- competing to speak
- frequent interruptions
What 4 aspects of parental speech increase stuttering?
1) SPEECH RATE: speech rates may be faster
2) FREQUENCY OF INTERRUPTIONS: more interruptions
3) FREQUENCY OF QUESTIONS: same #Qs but kids stutter more on longer answers
4) COMPLEXITY OF LANGAUGE: more complex language is less likely to recovery naturally
How do life events lead to stuttering?
- all children are less fluent during stressful events
- moving to new house/school
- divorce/separation of parents
- death of parents
- child hospitalized
- new baby
How is classical conditioning related to stuttering?
- UCS is the experience of stuttering, elicits UCR
- CS (talking on phone) eventually elicits UCR, making it a CR
- child experiences tension response it becomes associated with many stim
How do you undo classical conditioning?
- DESENSITIZATION: reduce emotional response by helping client stutter while relaxed
- POSITIVE EXPERIENCES: associate stutter with lots of positive experience
How is operant conditioning related to stuttering?
Secondary behaviours are maintained through negative reinforcement. Starts as random but it WORKS, thus increasing the frequency.