2. Knee Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Physical Assessment > 2. Knee Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2. Knee Anatomy Deck (52):
1

Tibiofemoral joint

Largest joint in body; modified hinge

2

Patellofemoral

Joint between patella and femur

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Parts of femur involved in knee joint

Med & lat epicondyles; Adductor tubercle

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Parts of tibia involved in knee joint

Plateau; med & lat condyles; tibial tuberosity

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Parts of fibula involved in kneed joint

Head; non-weight bearing, but does have role in ligament attachment

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Patella

Largest sesamoid bone of body; lies within patellar tendon; gives mechanical advantage to knee and protection

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Patella alta

Patella that rides abnormally high

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Patella baja

Patella that rides abnormally low

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MCL

Med epicondyle of femur to med condyle of tibia; BLENDS WITH CAPSULE AND MEDIAL MENSISCUS

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LCL

Lat epicondyle of femur to head of fibula; Lies under biceps femoris tendon; does NOT blend with capsule or meniscus

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ACL

Connects ANTERIOR TIBIA to POSTERIOR FEMUR; prevents tibia from sliding forward

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PCL

Connects POSTERIOR TIBIA to ANTERIOR FEMUR; prevents tibia from sliding back under femur; prevents hyperextension

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Coronal Ligament

Goes AROUND tibial condyles; keeps mensiscus in place

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Transverse Ligament

Attaches 2 mensisci anteriorly

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Capsule

Largest in body is in the knee; secretes synovial fluid

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Menisci

Cartilage; shock absorber; decrease friction; NO NERVE INNERVATION; MOSTLY AVASCULAR (INNER)

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Medial mensiscus

C-shaped; Attaches to MCL & capsule; larger than latera; moves posteriorly during flexion

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Lateral mensiscus

Sits on tibial condyle; O-shaped; NOT attached to LCL; moves posteriorly during flexion

19

Patellar Tendon

Insertion of quadraceps muscles; patella within tendon; inserts at tibial tuberosity

20

Muscles for Extending the Knee

Quadriceps (Rectus femoris; Vastus lateralis; Vastus medialis for last 20 degrees; Vastus intermedius) - ALL INSERT INTO PATELLAR TENDON; Tensor fascia latae

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Muscles for Flexing the Knee

Hamstrings (Biceps femoris - lateral; Semitendinosis - medial; Semimembranous - medial); Sartorius; Tensor fascia latae

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Sartorius

Tailored muscle, anterior; SPANS HIP AND KNEE; Hip flex, abd, ER & Knee extension; Longest muscle in body

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Gracilis

Adductor of hip; medial

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Tensor fascia Latae

Inserts into Iliotibial fascia; Hip abduction; KNEE FLEXION AND EXTENSION; lateral side

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Pes Anserine

Point of insertion on Medial tibial condyle for Gracilis, Semitendinosis, and Sartorius

26

Popliteus

Muscle directly behind knee; lateral to femur to medial tibia (wider); UNLOCKS THE KNEE

27

Iliotibial Band/ IT Band

Provides lateral support; Wide fascia on lateral thigh becomes narrow band by knee; INSERTS AT GERDY'S TUBERCLE; Originates from Tensor Fascia Latae

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7 Bursa of the Knee

Supra/Pre/Infrapatellar; IT Band; Pes Anserine; Popliteal; Lateral (under LCL)

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Suprapatellar bursa

Above patella; between Quad tendon and femur

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Prepatellar bursa

On patella (anterior); between patella and tendon

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Infrapatellar bursa (2)

Below patella (inferior); between tendon and tibia

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Lateral bursa

Between LCL & biceps femoris tendon

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IT Band bursa

Between IT band and tibia; Lateral

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Pes Anserine bursa

Between MCL & Pes tendons; medial

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Popliteal bursa

Baker's Cyst; between head of gastroc and semimembranosus; Posterior

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Peripheral nerve supply

Lateral cutaneous; Saphenous; Lateral peroneal; Superficial peroneal

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Lateral peroneal n.

L5, S1, 2

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Superficial peroneal n.

L4, 5, S1

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Saphenous n.

L3,4

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Lateral cutaneous n. of thigh

L2, 3

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Main thigh artery

Femoral a.

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Arteries around femoral epicondyles

Superior medial and lateral genicular arteries

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Arteries around head of tibia

Inferior medial and lateral genicular arteries

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Artery in popliteal fossa

Popliteal a.

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Posterior arteries of leg (calf)

Posterior tibial, Fibular, & Perforating aa.

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Anterior arteries of leg (calf)

Anterior tibial a; Perforating branches of fibular aa.

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Blood supply of plantar foot

Medial and lateral plantar aa.

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Blood supply of dorsal foot

Dorsalis pedis a.

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Blood supply of ankle

medial and lateral malleolar aa.

50

Genu Valgum

Knock-kneed

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Genu Varus

Bow-legged

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Genu Recurvatum

Hyperextension