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Flashcards in (2) Lecture Exam Deck (130):
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Origin

The stationary immovable, or less movable attachment

1

Insertion

The movable attachment

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Prime mover (agonist)

Muscles that are primarily responsible for producing a particular movement

3

Antagonist

Muscles that oppose or reverse a movement

4

Synergist

Help the action of agonists by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movement

5

Fixator

Aka fixation muscles. Are specialized synergists. They immobilize the origin of a prime mover so that all the tension is exerted at the insertion

6

Pectoralis major- origin, insertion, and action

Origin- sternum, cartilage of ribs 1-6, and aponeurisis of external oblique muscle.
Insertion- fibers converge to insert by short tendon into intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Action- prime mover of arm flexion; adducts, medially rotates arm

7

Rectus abdominis

Origin- pubic crest and symphysis
Insertion-xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7
Action- flexes and rotates vertebral column

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Levator scapulae

Origin- transverse processes of C1-C4
Insertion- medial border of scapula superior to spine
Action- elevates and adducts scapula

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Biceps brachii

Origin- short head: coracoid process; long head; supra glamour tubercle and tip of genius cavity; tendon of long head runs in intertubercular sulcus and within capsule of shoulder joint
Insertion- radial tuberosity
Action- flexion (powerful) of elbow and supination of forearm

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Adductor longus- origin, insertion, action

Origin- Pubis near public symphysis
Insertion- linea aspera
Action- adduct and medially rotate and flex thigh

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Vastus lateralis- origin, insertion, action

Origin- greater tronchater, intertrochanteric line, and linea aspera
Insertion- tibial tuberosity and patella
Action- extends and stabilizes knee

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pronator teres

Action - acts synergistically to pronate forearm; weak elbow flexor. Location - superficial, b/w brachioradialis and flexor carpi radialis

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Gluteus Maximus

Origin- dorsal ilium, sacrum, coccyx
Insertion- gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial tract
Action- major extensor of thigh

14

Biceps femoris

Origin- ischial tuberosity; linea aspera and distal femur
Insertion- tendon passes laterally to insert into head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia
Action- extends thigh and flexes knee

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Gastrocnemius

Origin- by two heads from medial and lateral condyles of femur
Insertion- calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Action- plantar flexes foot

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flexor carpi radialis

Action - powerful flexor of wrist; abducts hand. Location - runs superficial to and diagonally across forearm

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palmaris longus

Action - weakly flexes wrist; tenses skin and fascia of palm. Location - medial to flexor carpi radialis

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flexor carpi ulnaris

Action - powerful flexor of wrist; adducts hand. Location - superficial and medial to palmaris longus

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flexor digitorum superficialis

Action - flexes wrist and middle phalanges of fingers. Location - deep to flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, and flexor carpi radialis

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extensor carpi radialis longus

Action - extends and abducts wrist. Location - superficial and parallel to brachioradialis on lateral forearm

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extensor digitorum

Action - prime mover of finger extension. Location - superficial and medial to extensor carpi radialis brevis

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extensor carpi ulnaris

Action - extends and adducts wrist. Location - superficial and medially posterior to forearm

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abductor pollicis brevis

Action - abducts thumb.

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abductor digiti minimi

Action - abducts little finger

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triceps brachii

Action - powerful forearm extensor. Location - large muscle of posterior humerus

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long head (triceps)

Location - inferior margin of glenoid cavity

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lateral head (triceps)

Location - posterior humerus

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medial head (triceps)

Location - distal radial groove on posterior humerus

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brachialis

Action - a major flexor of forearm. Location - immediately deep to biceps brachialis

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brachioradialis

Action - synergist in forearm flexion. Location - superficial muscle of lateral forearm

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diaphragm

the muscle of respiration

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trapezius

Action - stabilizes, raises, rotates, and retracts the scapula.
Insertion - Acromion and spinous process.
Origin - occipital bone, C7 and all thoracic vertebrae

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latissimus dorsi

Action - prime mover of arm extension; adducts and medially rotates arm

34

infraspinatus

Action - lateral rotation of humerus. Location - superior to deltoid and trapezius; a rotator cuff muscle.

35

teres major

Action - extends, medially rotates, and adducts humerus. Location - inferior to teres minor

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rhomboid minor

Action - retracts and stabilizes scapula. Location - beneath trapezius and inferior to levator scapulae.

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fibularis longus

Action - plantar flexes and everts foot. Location - superficial lateral muscle over fibula

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tibialis anterior

Action - prime mover of dorsiflexion (pointing foot). Location - superficial muscle of anterior leg

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extensor digitorum longus

Action - prime mover of toe extension. Location - lateral to tibialis anterior

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extensor digitorum brevis

Action - helps extend toes at phalanges. Location - top of foot

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flexor digitorum brevis

Action - helps flex toes. Location - middle of sole

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abductor hallucis

Action - abducts great toe. Location - medial to flexor digitorum brevis

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abductor digiti minimi

Action - abducts little toe. Location - later to flexor digitorum brevis

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rotator cuff muscles (4)

SITS. Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapillaris

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masseter

cheek muscle responsible for chewing action

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anterior face and neck muscles (5)

orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, masseter, temporalis, sternocleidomastoid

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elbow flexion

PM - brachialis. Ant - triceps brachii. Syn - biceps brachii and bracioradialis

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muscles connecting to medial epicondyle

ALL FOREARM PRONATORS: pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis

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muscles connecting to lateral epicondyle

ALL FOREARM SUPINATORS: extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum, extensor carpi ulnaris

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medial head gastrocnemius

Action - plantar flexes foot. Location - originates from medial condyle of femur

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lateral head gastrocnemius

Action - plantar flexes foot. Location - originates from lateral condyle of femur

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soleus

Action - plantar flexes foot. Location - deep to gastrocnemius

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semimembranosus

Action - extends thigh; flexes knee. Location - deep to semitendinosus

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semitendinosus

Action - extends thigh; flexes knee. Location - medial to biceps femoris.

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biceps femoris

Action - extends thigh; flexes day. Location - most lateral component of hamstrings

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gluteus medius

Action - abducts and medially rotates thigh. Location - partially deep to gluteus maximum.

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gluteus maximus

Action - major extensor of thigh. Location - your butt.

58

tensor fasciae latae

Action - steadies the trunk on thigh. Location - enclosed in fascia layers

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vastus intermedius

Action - extends knee. Location - between v. lateralis and v. intermediate (quad)

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vastus medialis

Action - extends knee. Location - most medial quad

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rectus femoris

Action - extends knee and flexes thigh at hip. Location - superficial quad running straight down thigh.

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gracilis

Action - adducts thigh; flexes and medially rotates leg. Location - straplike superficial muscle of medial thigh

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sartorius

Action - flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh; flexes knee. Location - straplike superficial muscle crossing front of thigh

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pectoralis minor

Action - with ribs fixed, draws scapula forward and inferiorly. Location - deep to pect. major.

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serratus anterior

Action - prime mover to protect and hold scapula against chest wall.

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sarcomere

the contractile unit of skeletal muscle; from 1 z disc to the next. I band - actin (thin) filaments only; H zone - myosin (thick) filaments only; M line - middle of myosin filaments; A band - from one zone of overlap to the next.

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4 steps of muscle contraction

before this, the SR releases calcium ions into the the sarcoplasm, where they bind with troponin, causing tropomyosin to peel away from the myosin binding sites on actin. 1. ATP hydrolysis, 2. attachment of myosin to actin to form cross-bridges, 3. power stroke (shifting of a few units actin over myosin), 4. detachment of myosin from actin. this will continue with more ATP, or stop if the calcium active transport pumps pull calcium back into the SR (aka relaxation)

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sarcolemma

AKA endomycium - CT sheath covering each muscle fiber, acting as the plasma membrane

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T tubules

t = transverse - an indention of the sarcolemma into the myofibril, surrounded by 2 terminal cisterns of the SR to allow calcium to access areas of contraction

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muscle triad

T-tubule surrounded by 2 terminal cisterns.

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sarcoplasm

cytoplasm of a myofibril, consisting of glycogen to help synthesize ATP

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sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

fluid filled system of membranous sacs (like smooth ER) surrounding each myofibril; stores calcium until releasing it via terminal cisterns during contraction, also pulls it back in with calcium active transport pumps during relaxation

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fascicle

a collection of myofibrils wrapped in perimysium

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epimysium

dense connective tissue covering an entire collection of fascicles AKA the whole muscle.

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external oblique

Action - flex vertebral column and compress abdominal wall. fibers run downwards

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internal oblique

Action - flex vertebral column and compress abdominal wall. Fibers run upwards

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transversus abdominis

Action - compresses abdominal contents. fibers run perpendicular to linea alba

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Skeletal muscle

Striated and voluntary. Long cylindrical fiber with many peripherally located nuclei, unbranched.

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Cardiac muscle

Striated and involuntary. Smaller muscle fibers than skeletal. Branched cylindrical fiber with one centrally located nucleus; intercalated discs join neighboring fibers

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Smooth muscle

Unstriated and involuntary. Uninucleate and tapered cells. Fiber is thickest in the middle, tapered at each end, and has one centrally positioned nucleus.

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Articular cartilage

Lubricated by synovial fluid to reduce friction and helps absorb shock

82

Bursae

Saclike structures that alleviate friction around some joints (shoulder and knee), not a part of the synovial joint.

83

Synarthrosis

Immovable joint. 2 kinds- fibrous joints and cartilaginous joints

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Fibrous joints

Sutures, syndesmoses, and interosseous membranes (synarthrotic joints)

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Cartilaginous joints

Synchondroses, symphyses (synarthrotic)

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Synchondroses

immovable cartilaginous joint where connecting material is hyaline cartilage

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Symphyses

Cartilaginous joint where the ends of articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage

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Diarthrosis

Freely movable joint (shoulder snd hip joints)

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Joint movement- gliding

Movement of a relatively flat bone surfaces back and forth and side to side over one another, little change in angle between bones

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Joint movement- angular

Increase or decrease in angle between bones

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Joint movement- flexion

Decrease in angle between articulating bones, usually in Sagittal plane

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Joint movement- lateral flexion

Movement of trunk in frontal plane

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Joint movement- extension

Increase in angle between articulating bones, usually in Sagittal plane

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Joint movement- hyperextension

Extension beyond anatomical position

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Joint movement- abduction

Movement of bone away from midline, usually in frontal plant

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Joint movement-adduction

Movement of bone toward midline, usually in frontal plane

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Joint movement- circumduction

Flexion, abduction, extension, adduction, and rotation in succession: distal part of the body moves in a circle

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Joint movement- protraction

Anterior movement of body parts in transverse plane

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Joint movement- retraction

Posterior movements of body part in transverse plane

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Joint movement- inversion

Medial movement of sole

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Joint movement- eversion

Lateral movement of sole

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Joint movement- dorsiflexion

Bending foot in direction of dorsum (superior surface)

103

Joint movement- plantar flexion

Bending foot in direction of plantar surface (sole)

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Joint movement- opposition

Movement of the thumb across palm to touch fingers on the same hand

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Extensibility

Muscles extending and getting longer

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Contractility

Muscles contracting and getting shorter

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Excitability

Muscles are stimulated by some kind of nerve innervation

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Elasticity

Muscle is able to be stretched and shortened and then return to its normal resting state

109

Process of neuromuscular junction

action potentials travel along sarcolemma and through T tubules. muscle action potential created at NMJ (synapse b/w somatic motor neuron and skeletal muscle fiber)
1. Release of acetylcholine
2. Activation of ACh receptors
3. Production of muscle action potential
4. Termination of ACh activity

110

Proteins involved with sarcomere

Contractile proteins
Regulatory proteins
Structural proteins

111

Contractile proteins

Generate force during muscle contractions, myosin and actin

112

Regulatory proteins

Assists with switching muscle contractions on and off. Tropomyosin (myosin binding sites) and troponin (calcium binding protein)

113

Structural proteins

Turin, myomesin, nebulin, dystrophin - keep contractile proteins (aka myofibrils) in proper alignment, give them elasticity and extensibility, and link them to the sarcolemma and extra cellular matrix

114

Endomysium

Thin layer of reticular fibers that surround each muscle fiber

115

Perimysium

The dense irregular connective tissue that covers a fascicle

116

Fascicle

Muscle fiber bundle

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Epimysium

Dense irregular connective tissue around the periphery of the muscle

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Fascia

Protects various skeletal muscles of the body, dense irregular connective tissue sheets

119

Neurovascular bundle

Entrance of nerves and blood vessels into a muscle, typically near the origin, then spreading throughout muscle through connective tissue channels

120

Acetylcholine

The major neurotransmitter that initiates muscle contraction

121

Muscle tone

A small amount of tautness or tension in the muscle due to weak, involuntary contractions of its motor units

122

Isometric contractions

The tension generated but not enough to exceed the resistance of the object to be moved and the muscles do not change in length

123

Isotonic contractions

Tension in the muscle remains almost constant while the muscle changes its length. Movements for moving objects.
2 kinds- concentric and eccentric

124

Concentric isotonic contractions

Shortening of the muscle, condense

125

Eccentric isotonic contractions

Lengthening of the muscle, bicep extension

126

subscapularis

medially rotates arm at shoulder

127

Type I muscle fibers

Aka slow oxidative fibers. Smallest in diameter and least powerful type. Large mitochondria, lots of myoglobin, many blood capillaries. Produce ATP by aerobic cellular respiration, use ATP slowly to slow speed of contraction. Resistant to fatigue, ex marathon runners!

128

Type IIa muscle fibers

Aka fast oxidative glycolytic fibers. Are larger than SO, but smaller than IIb. Large amounts of myoglobin and blood capillaries. Generate considerable ATP by aerobic respiration to give moderately high resistance to fatigue. Use ATP at a fast rate. Found in fast walkers and sprinters.

129

Type IIb muscle fibers

Aka fast glycolytic fibers. Largest muscle fibers in diameter. Contains most myofibrils. Most powerful contractions. Low myoglobin, few blood capillaries and mitochondria. Lots of glycogen and produce ATP by anaerobic respiration. Use ATP quickly, fatigues quickly. Ex weightlifters, sprinters at starting block.