Flashcards in 2. Structure and function of the respiratory system Deck (72):
What 2 regions make up the respiratory tract?
- Upper respiratory tract
- Lower respiratory tract
What makes up the upper respiratory tract?
- Nasal cavity
What makes up the lower respiratory tract?
What 2 compartments make up the nose?
- External nose
- Interal nasal cavity
What cartilage forms the bridge of the nose?
Greater alar cartilage
What 2 cartilages and bones make up the external nose?
- Septal cartilage
- Greater alar cartilage
- Extensions of frontal & maxillary bones
Term for nostrils
Term for internal nares
The internal nasal cavity consists of.. (4)
- Interal nares (choanae)
- Posterior region of the nasal cavity
- Vestibule (opening)
What is the anterior portion of the nasal septem made from?
What is the posterior region of the nasal septem made from?
Vomer & ethmoid bone
What is the floor of the nasal cavity is made from?
Term for 3 bony ridges in the nasal cavity
Which side of the nasal cavity are the conchae located?
What is the purpose of the conchae?
To filter out impurities
Term for the passage ways between the conchae
Between which conchae do the openings of the paranasal sinuses exist?
Superior and median
Where is the opening of the nasolacrinal duct?
Between the median and lower conchae
What type of epithelium lines the vestibule (opening) of the nasal cavity?
What 2 types of cell line the posterior side of the nasal cavity?
- Goblet cells
- Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells
What type of epithelium lines the superior region of the nasal cavity?
Name 3 regions of the pharynx
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located?
Posterior region of the nasopharynx
The nasopharynx contains the openings for which tubes?
Junction point between the GI tract and respiratory tract
Section of the pharynx that extends from the uvula to the epiglottis
What type of epithelium lines the oropharynx?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Immune tissue that contains antigen presenting cells
Which region of the pharynx are the tonsils located?
There are 2 sets of tonsils. What are their names?
Where does the laryngopharynx extend to and from?
From the epiglottis to the opening of the oesophagus and larynx
How many cartilages is the larynx made from?
How many paired cartilages are there in the larynx?
What are the names of the unpaired cartilages in the larynx?
- Thyroid cartilage
- Cricoid cartilage
Which cartilage is the largest (larynx)?
Which cartilage is positioned most superiorly in the larynx?
Which cartilage forms the adam's apple?
Which cartilage consists of elastic cartilage and forms a free flap?
Which cartilage forms the base of the larynx?
What are the names of the paired cartilages?
What cartilages are the false vocal cords attached to and in what postion?
Posterior region of the arytenoid cartilage and anterior region of the thyroid cartilage.
Another term for the false vocal cords
What do the inferior ligaments, attached to the arytenoid cartilage, form?
True vocal cords
What is the name of the opening between the vocal cords?
How can sounds be modified?
Lengthening or shortening the vocal cords
Range of c shaped cartilages in the trachea
How can the diameter of the trachea be altered?
The posterior wall of the trachea contains smooth muscle & ligamentous membrane
What muscle contracts as we swallow?
What bifurcates to form the bronchi?
What bronchi enter the lungs?
What do bronchi divide into?
What type of cells do the bronchi contain?
What do goblet cells release and why?
Mucus, to remove bacteria
What organ extends from the diaphragm?
How many lobes does the right lung have?
How many lobes does the left lung have?
What do lobes divide into?
How are lobules separated from one another?
How many lobules does the right lung have?
How many lobules does the left lung have?
Where do blood vessels and nerves enter the lungs?
In which organ is the pleura located?
What is the parietal pleura?
A serous membrane which touches the inner thoracic wall, diaphragm & mediastinum
What is a serous membrane?
Tissue which lines the internal cavities, forming a 2 layered membrane
What is the visceral pleura?
A serous membrane covering the surface of the lung
What fluid exists between the visceral and parietal pleura?
2 functions of the pleural fluid
1) lubricate during breathing so each pleural membrane can slide past one another
2) Holds plueral membranes together
What is the major way blood is supplied to the respiratory system?
Pulmonary artery (to the lungs)
What blood vessel supplies the bronchi tissue and respiratory bronchioles with blood?
3 muscles of respiration
2) Muscles that elevate the ribs
3) Muscles that depress the ribs
Muscles involved in inhalation (6)
- Pectoralis minor
- Serratus anterior
- External intercostals