2. Structure and function of the respiratory system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2. Structure and function of the respiratory system Deck (72):
1

What 2 regions make up the respiratory tract?

- Upper respiratory tract
- Lower respiratory tract

2

What makes up the upper respiratory tract?

- Nose
- Nasal cavity
- Pharynx

3

What makes up the lower respiratory tract?

- Larynx
- Trachea
- Bronchi
- Lungs

4

What 2 compartments make up the nose?

- External nose
- Interal nasal cavity

5

What cartilage forms the bridge of the nose?

Greater alar cartilage

6

What 2 cartilages and bones make up the external nose?

- Septal cartilage
- Greater alar cartilage
- Extensions of frontal & maxillary bones

7

Term for nostrils

Nares

8

Term for internal nares

Choanae

9

The internal nasal cavity consists of.. (4)

- Nares
- Interal nares (choanae)
- Posterior region of the nasal cavity
- Vestibule (opening)

10

What is the anterior portion of the nasal septem made from?

Cartilage

11

What is the posterior region of the nasal septem made from?

Vomer & ethmoid bone

12

What is the floor of the nasal cavity is made from?

Hard palate

13

Term for 3 bony ridges in the nasal cavity

Conchae

14

Which side of the nasal cavity are the conchae located?

Lateral wall

15

What is the purpose of the conchae?

To filter out impurities

16

Term for the passage ways between the conchae

Meatus

17

Between which conchae do the openings of the paranasal sinuses exist?

Superior and median

18

Where is the opening of the nasolacrinal duct?

Between the median and lower conchae

19

What type of epithelium lines the vestibule (opening) of the nasal cavity?

Stratified squamous

20

What 2 types of cell line the posterior side of the nasal cavity?

- Goblet cells
- Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells

21

What type of epithelium lines the superior region of the nasal cavity?

Olfactory

22

Name 3 regions of the pharynx

- Nasopharynx
- Oropharynx
- Laryngopharynx

23

Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located?

Posterior region of the nasopharynx

24

The nasopharynx contains the openings for which tubes?

Auditory/eustachian tubes

25

Junction point between the GI tract and respiratory tract

Oropharynx

26

Section of the pharynx that extends from the uvula to the epiglottis

Oropharynx

27

What type of epithelium lines the oropharynx?

Stratified squamous epithelium

28

Immune tissue that contains antigen presenting cells

Tonsils

29

Which region of the pharynx are the tonsils located?

Oropharynx

30

There are 2 sets of tonsils. What are their names?

- Palatine
- Lingual

31

Where does the laryngopharynx extend to and from?

From the epiglottis to the opening of the oesophagus and larynx

32

How many cartilages is the larynx made from?

9

33

How many paired cartilages are there in the larynx?

3 pairs

34

What are the names of the unpaired cartilages in the larynx?

- Thyroid cartilage
- Epiglottis
- Cricoid cartilage

35

Which cartilage is the largest (larynx)?

Thyroid

36

Which cartilage is positioned most superiorly in the larynx?

Thyroid

37

Which cartilage forms the adam's apple?

Thyroid

38

Which cartilage consists of elastic cartilage and forms a free flap?

Epiglottis

39

Which cartilage forms the base of the larynx?

Cricoid

40

What are the names of the paired cartilages?

- Arytenoid
- Corniculate
- Cuneiform

41

What cartilages are the false vocal cords attached to and in what postion?

Posterior region of the arytenoid cartilage and anterior region of the thyroid cartilage.

42

Another term for the false vocal cords

Vestibular folds

43

What do the inferior ligaments, attached to the arytenoid cartilage, form?

True vocal cords

44

What is the name of the opening between the vocal cords?

Glottis

45

How can sounds be modified?

Lengthening or shortening the vocal cords

46

Range of c shaped cartilages in the trachea

15-20

47

How can the diameter of the trachea be altered?

The posterior wall of the trachea contains smooth muscle & ligamentous membrane

48

What muscle contracts as we swallow?

Skeletal

49

What bifurcates to form the bronchi?

The trachea

50

What bronchi enter the lungs?

Secondary bronchi

51

What do bronchi divide into?

Bronchioles

52

What type of cells do the bronchi contain?

Ciliated/goblet cells

53

What do goblet cells release and why?

Mucus, to remove bacteria

54

What organ extends from the diaphragm?

The lungs

55

How many lobes does the right lung have?

3

56

How many lobes does the left lung have?

2

57

What do lobes divide into?

Lobules

58

How are lobules separated from one another?

Connective tissue

59

How many lobules does the right lung have?

10

60

How many lobules does the left lung have?

9

61

Where do blood vessels and nerves enter the lungs?

Hilum

62

In which organ is the pleura located?

Lungs

63

What is the parietal pleura?

A serous membrane which touches the inner thoracic wall, diaphragm & mediastinum

64

What is a serous membrane?

Tissue which lines the internal cavities, forming a 2 layered membrane

65

What is the visceral pleura?

A serous membrane covering the surface of the lung

66

What fluid exists between the visceral and parietal pleura?

Pleural fluid

67

2 functions of the pleural fluid

1) lubricate during breathing so each pleural membrane can slide past one another

2) Holds plueral membranes together

68

What is the major way blood is supplied to the respiratory system?

Pulmonary artery (to the lungs)

69

What blood vessel supplies the bronchi tissue and respiratory bronchioles with blood?

Bronchial arteries

70

3 muscles of respiration

1) Diaphragm
2) Muscles that elevate the ribs
3) Muscles that depress the ribs

71

Muscles involved in inhalation (6)

- Sternocleidomastoid
- Scalenes
- Pectoralis minor
- Serratus anterior
- External intercostals
- Diaphragm

72

Muscles involved in exhalation (4)

- Transversus thoracis
- Internal intercostals
- Diaphragm
- Rectus abdominis & other abdominal muscles