2.) Thermography Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.) Thermography Deck (123):
1

Where is the following quote from?

"Should one part of the body be hotter or colder than the rest, then disease is present in that part"

The Genuine Works of Hippocrates

- Williams & Wilkens, 1939

2

What did Hippocrates use to help control temperature?

Mud packs

3

Who did the chiropractic usage of thermography begin with?

Dossa Evins

4

How long has thermography been considered important?

Centuries

5

What are 2 basic examples of measuring thermography/temperature throughout history?

1.) Back of the Hand

2.) Thermometer

6

Chiropractic usage of thermography grew out of the desire for what 3 things?

1.) Find the Vertebral Subluxation Complex (VSC)

2.) Quantify the VSC

3.) Verify correction of the VSC

7

What is one of the added benefits to the chiropractic usage of thermography?

It added 3rd party credibility

8

Who developed the Neurocalometer (NCM)?

Dossa D. Evins

9

When was the Neurocalometer (NCM) developed?

1924

10

Where did Dossa Evins develop the Neurocalometer (NCM)?

Palmer

11

What is the neurocalometer (NCM) composed of?

2 sets of thermocouples

12

What is a neurocalometer (NCM) also known as?

Model A Calograph

13

Leasing of the neurocalometer (NCM) lead to the split of what 2 schools?

1.) Palmer

2.) Lincoln (National)

14

What year did B.J. Palmer officially unveil the NCM?

1924

15

What did B.J. Palmer claim the NCM could do?

Find subluxations better than any chiropractor

16

How long was the NCM available to lease for?

10 years

17

Where was the only place that the NCM could be leased from?

Palmer School of Chiropractic (PSC)

18

How much did it cost to lease an NCM for 10 years?

$2,000

19

Reaction from the profession was rapidly and largely _____.

Negative

20

What were 2 of the negative effects of B.J. Palmer's NCM proclaimations?

1.) Enrollment at Palmer School of Chiropractic (PSC) plummeted

2.) Palmer was defeated in his bid for re-election to the secretariat of the UCA

21

When was Palmer defeated in his bid for re-election to the secretariat of the UCA?

August 1926

22

When did Palmer hold the post for secretariat of the UCA?

1906 - 1925

23

What did Palmer help to organize in 1926?

The Chiropractic Health Bureau

24

When did Palmer organize the Chiropractic Health Bureau?

September 1926

25

What year did B.J. Palmer die?

1961

26

When did B.J. Palmer preside over the Chiropractic Health Bureau?

1926 - 1961

27

What is another name for a neurocalograph?

Thermoscribe

28

What is a neurocalograph used for?

To record a study of nerve pressure patterns established before the adjustment of an existing VSC and the corrective pattern cycles which followed the adjustment

29

Where was the neurocalograph developed?

Palmer

30

What was the neurocalograph used in conjunction with?

Neurocalometer

31

What were the neurocalograph and neuocalometer used for?

To graph temperature differentiations in spinal nerves

32

Why was the neurocalograph important for chiropractors?

It helped the DC ascertain the presence or absence of vertebral interference in the flow of energy between brain cells and tissue cells

33

When was the neurocalograph (NCGH) developed?

The 30s

34

What are 6 forms of the neurocalograph evolution?

1.) Neuropyrometer

2.) Neurothermometer

3.) Nervo-scope

4.) Thermeter

5.) Thermoscribe

6.) Analagraph

35

What is the chirometer used for?

Upper Cervical Readings

36

Who developed the Derma-Therm-o-Graph (DTG)?

Pierce & Stillwagon

with much help from Dr. Thompson

37

When was the Derma-Therm-o-Graph (DTG) developed?

The 60s

38

What does the Derma-Therm-o-Graph use to scan thermography?

Infrared

39

What is one of the following generations of the derma-therm-o-graph?

DT-25

40

What are 2 other infrared thermography scanners that were developed by different companies?

1.) Tytron

2.) Insight

41

How does the Tytron differ from a Derma-Therm-o-Graph?

The Tytron further advances infrared technology using Horizontal Analysis?

42

What is insight?

A variation on Tytron

43

Thermography is measure using what temperature differences in infrared technology?

Right and Left

44

What is a Visi-Therm?

Hand-held wand with an array of sensor that produce color mapping of a scanned area

45

Who developed the Visi-Therm?

Dr. Stillwagon

46

How many data samples can be collected using a 2-probe scanner?

400

47

How many data samples can be collected using a visi-therm scanner?

26,000

48

How much does a visi-therm scanner cost?

$8-9K

 

49

How are liquid crystals used in thermography?

Cholesteric esters change color with changes in temperatue

50

What are 2 examples of liquid crystal thermography technology?

1.) Mood rings

2.) Hug indicators

51

When was the applicable technology for liquid crystals pioneered?

Late 70s

52

Who developed the practical application of liquid crystal technology?

Flexitherm

53

How much is Liquid Crystal Thermography (LCT)?

$8-10k

54

What is telethermography?

A camera with infrared sensor attached to a computer

55

What are 2 advantages to telethermography?

1.) Real-time imaging

2.) Very sensitive: Gives the ability to look at numerous areas

56

What is a disadvantage to telethermography?

Very costly: $30-100k

57

What are 5 absolute thermometry or thermal scanning instruments/devices?

1.) NCM

2.) DTG

3.) Tytron

4.) Myovision

5.) Insight

58

What are 3 differential thermography scanning instruments/devices?

1.) Visitherm

2.) LCT

3.) Telethermography

59

What is Thermometry also known as?

Thermal scanning

60

What does thermometry show?

Temperatures are numerical degrees

61

What does thermography show?

Color pictures of anatomy being scanned

62

What is the difference between thermography and thermometry?

Thermography: Shows color pictures of the anatomy being scanned

Thermometry: Shows temperatures as numerical degrees

63

What are 4 methods of heat transfer?

1.) Conduction

2.) Infrared Radiation

3.) Convection

4.) Evaporation

64

What are 2 devices that measure conduction?

1.) NCM

2.) Nervoscope

65

What are 3 devices that measure radiation?

1.) Tytron

2.) Insight

3.) DTG

66

What are 6 advantages to thermography?

1.) Non-invasive

2.) No ionizing radiation

3.) Painless

4.) Safe

5.) Some portability

6.) Effective

67

What are 5 disadvantages of Thermography?

1.) Expensive

2.) Strict protocol

3.) Expertise for interpretation

4.) Time consuming

5.) May require a special room

68

What controls skin temperature?

Sympathetic Nervous System

69

How does the sympathetic nervous system control skin termperature?

Through vasodilation and constriction of arterioles

70

What does thermography show?

A measurement of heat and a picture of physiology

71

Hypothermic transmission begins with the activation of which type of nerve fibers?

Sympathetic

72

Sympathetic nerve fibers are activated via which type of response?

Reflexogenic response

73

What causes the reflexogenic response which activates sympathetic nerve fibers?

Afferent mechanoreceptor input from spinal joints

74

What does activation of the sympathetic nerve fibers cause during hypothermic transmissions?

Vasoconstriction along the dermal microcirculation of one or more neurotomes

75

What is the most common result of chronic spinal neuropathophysiologic conditions?

Decreased thermal emission at the paraspinal and dermatomal level

76

Hyperthermic emissions are mainly caused by what 2 neurophysiologic mechanisms?

1.) Acute Injury

2.) Decrease or cessation of sympathetic activity

77

What is the hyperthermic mechanism of acute injuries?

Antidromic stimulation of nociceptive C-fibers cause a peripheral release of substance P, which acts upon arterial receptors causing dilation

78

What is the result of decreased or cessation of sympathetic activity?

Vasodilation due to a loss of normal dermal vascular tone

79

Based on the physiology of hyperthermic emissions the body can be divided into _____ and _____.

Dermatomes and thermatomes

80

Hyperthermic emission physiology should be even side to side or _____?

Symmetrical

81

What temperature differential is representative of nerve dysfunction?

A change in termperatue of > 0.5°C

82

What organiztion states:

"Central conrol of skin temperature affects both sides of the body uniformly and simultaneously resulting in symmetry of thermal patterns. The presence of significant temperature differences between corresponding areas of opposite sides of the body is suggestive of nerve impairment"

AMA Council on Scientific Affairs

83

Thermography can detect all components of the VSC except?

Spinal Kinesiopathology

84

Does thermography look at sensory or motor responses?

Sensory

85

What is sensory nerve irritation believed to produce?

Reflex vasoconstriction through the Autonomic Nervous System

86

Sensory nerve irritation causes vasoconstriction of which types of blood vessels?

Arterioles of the skin

87

What are 4 indications of use for thermography?

1.) Outcome assessment tool

2.) Equivocal clinical findings

3.) Need for medico-legal evidence

4.) Unsatisfactory response to care

88

What are 7 applications of thermography?

1.) Determine & evaluate existence & extent of VSC

2.) Differential diagnosis

3.) Diagnosis of sensory/autonomic nerve dysfunction

4.) Evaluation for changes in procedure

5.) Monitoring &/or evaluating treatment effectiveness

6.) Objective evidence for permanency evaluation

7.) Differential diagnosis for referral, esp. vascular problems

89

What are the 4 key areas for proper exam testing & interpretation for Visi-Therm or Telethermography?

1.) Exam room termperature & environment: 68°F

2.) Patient preparation

3.) Proper detector/machine set-up

4.) Recording on film or computer

90

When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography, patient should not smoke for how long before the exam?

4hrs

91

T/F

When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography they should not shower, bathe, use powder or lotions.

False

They can shower and bathe, but not powder or lotions

92

T/F

When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography the patient should have not PT, ice, heat or adjustments.

True

93

Unless it is absolutely necessarily, when preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography, there should be no use of braces, sprints, or support collars for how long before the exam?

6hrs

94

When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography there can be no sunburn or excessive sun for how long before the exam?

10 days

95

When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography how long should you equilibrate for?

12 mins

96

What are 4 things that thermography will show to a D.C.?

1.) If there is a neurological impairment &/or VSC

2.) If a patient is responding favorably or negatively to care

3.) When or when not to adjust

4.) If the patient has permanent neurological impairment (Maximum Chiropractic Improvement)

97

What are 3 different chiropractic systems of analysis?

1.) Pattern

2.) Thermal symmetry

3.) Break

98

What are 2 techniques that follow the pattern system of analysis?

1.) Upper Cervical

2.) Pierce

99

What are 2 techniques that follow the thermal symmetry system of analysis devised by Stillwagon?

1.) Vertical

2.) Horizontal

100

What technique follows the break pattern of system analysis?

Gonstead Technique

101

Who said:

"Subluxations frequently existed far removed fromtheir most evident manifestation and that heat differential redaings did not necessarily indicate location for spinal adjustment"

B.J. Palmer

102

What would be normal in a vertical analysis of thermal symmetry?

Gradual and smooth increase in temperature

103

What would be abnormal in a vertical analysis of thermal symmetry?

A change in > 1°F (0.5°C) from sacrum to occiput

104

What should be the goal of a vertical analysis of thermal symmetry?

Elimination of cold &/or hot spots or areas, where lines radically shift left or right

105

A shift to the left in vertical analysis of thermal symmetry indicates what?

Cold

106

A shift to the right in vertical analysis of thermal symmetry indicates what?

Hot

107

What are 5 steps in the horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry?

1.) Take R & L paraspinal scans

2.) Mark L & R on scans

3.) Overlay so they overlap according to the mean temperature difference

4.) Look for identical areas for reference points

5.) Look for temperature splits

108

During horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry R & L paraspinal scans should be done from where to where?

S1 to C0

C0 = Hairline

109

During horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry where can the mean temperature difference be found on a DTG graph?

Bottom center

110

What do temperature splits indicate on the horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry?

Horizontal thermal asymmetries

111

What is the goal of horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry?

Eliminate the thermal splits

112

T/F

Signs and symptoms are the key to care?

False

Function is the key to care

113

The 3-D Model of VSC looks at what 3 things?

1.) Dysponesis

2.) Dysautonomia

3.) Dyskinesia

114

What is dysautonomia?

Disruption of the anutonomic nervous system (ANS)

115

What is dyskinesia?

Abnormal motion & or position of the vertebra

116

What is dysponesis?

A reversible physiopathologic state of consisting of unnoticed, misdirected neurophysiologic reaction to various agents and the repercussions of those reactions throughout the organism

117

Dysponesis or the error of energy expenditure is capable of producing what?

Functional disorders

118

What physiologic error results in dysponesis?

Covert errors in action-potetial output from the motor and premotor areas of the cortex and the consequences of that output

119

What are the 5 steps of dysponesis?

1.) Correctable or reversible changes

2.) Neurophysiologic or abnormal function

3.) Repercussions

4.) Errors of energy expenditure

5.) Functional disorders

120

Thermography can differentiate what 4 things?

1.) Visceral & somatic complaints

2.) Sympathetic defense mechanisms (RSDS)

3.) Direct neurological conditions

4.) Local skin phenomena

121

What is the most objective measurement and recording of ANS function related to skin vasomotor control?

Thermography

122

Dysautonomia is measurable with _____.

Thermography

123

Dyskinesia is measurable with _____.

Inclinometry