Where is the following quote from?
"Should one part of the body be hotter or colder than the rest, then disease is present in that part"
The Genuine Works of Hippocrates
- Williams & Wilkens, 1939
What did Hippocrates use to help control temperature?
Who did the chiropractic usage of thermography begin with?
How long has thermography been considered important?
What are 2 basic examples of measuring thermography/temperature throughout history?
1.) Back of the Hand
Chiropractic usage of thermography grew out of the desire for what 3 things?
1.) Find the Vertebral Subluxation Complex (VSC)
2.) Quantify the VSC
3.) Verify correction of the VSC
What is one of the added benefits to the chiropractic usage of thermography?
It added 3rd party credibility
Who developed the Neurocalometer (NCM)?
Dossa D. Evins
When was the Neurocalometer (NCM) developed?
Where did Dossa Evins develop the Neurocalometer (NCM)?
What is the neurocalometer (NCM) composed of?
2 sets of thermocouples
What is a neurocalometer (NCM) also known as?
Model A Calograph
Leasing of the neurocalometer (NCM) lead to the split of what 2 schools?
2.) Lincoln (National)
What year did B.J. Palmer officially unveil the NCM?
What did B.J. Palmer claim the NCM could do?
Find subluxations better than any chiropractor
How long was the NCM available to lease for?
Where was the only place that the NCM could be leased from?
Palmer School of Chiropractic (PSC)
How much did it cost to lease an NCM for 10 years?
Reaction from the profession was rapidly and largely _____.
What were 2 of the negative effects of B.J. Palmer's NCM proclaimations?
1.) Enrollment at Palmer School of Chiropractic (PSC) plummeted
2.) Palmer was defeated in his bid for re-election to the secretariat of the UCA
When was Palmer defeated in his bid for re-election to the secretariat of the UCA?
When did Palmer hold the post for secretariat of the UCA?
1906 - 1925
What did Palmer help to organize in 1926?
The Chiropractic Health Bureau
When did Palmer organize the Chiropractic Health Bureau?
What year did B.J. Palmer die?
When did B.J. Palmer preside over the Chiropractic Health Bureau?
1926 - 1961
What is another name for a neurocalograph?
What is a neurocalograph used for?
To record a study of nerve pressure patterns established before the adjustment of an existing VSC and the corrective pattern cycles which followed the adjustment
Where was the neurocalograph developed?
What was the neurocalograph used in conjunction with?
What were the neurocalograph and neuocalometer used for?
To graph temperature differentiations in spinal nerves
Why was the neurocalograph important for chiropractors?
It helped the DC ascertain the presence or absence of vertebral interference in the flow of energy between brain cells and tissue cells
When was the neurocalograph (NCGH) developed?
What are 6 forms of the neurocalograph evolution?
What is the chirometer used for?
Upper Cervical Readings
Who developed the Derma-Therm-o-Graph (DTG)?
Pierce & Stillwagon
with much help from Dr. Thompson
When was the Derma-Therm-o-Graph (DTG) developed?
What does the Derma-Therm-o-Graph use to scan thermography?
What is one of the following generations of the derma-therm-o-graph?
What are 2 other infrared thermography scanners that were developed by different companies?
How does the Tytron differ from a Derma-Therm-o-Graph?
The Tytron further advances infrared technology using Horizontal Analysis?
What is insight?
A variation on Tytron
Thermography is measure using what temperature differences in infrared technology?
Right and Left
What is a Visi-Therm?
Hand-held wand with an array of sensor that produce color mapping of a scanned area
Who developed the Visi-Therm?
How many data samples can be collected using a 2-probe scanner?
How many data samples can be collected using a visi-therm scanner?
How much does a visi-therm scanner cost?
How are liquid crystals used in thermography?
Cholesteric esters change color with changes in temperatue
What are 2 examples of liquid crystal thermography technology?
1.) Mood rings
2.) Hug indicators
When was the applicable technology for liquid crystals pioneered?
Who developed the practical application of liquid crystal technology?
How much is Liquid Crystal Thermography (LCT)?
What is telethermography?
A camera with infrared sensor attached to a computer
What are 2 advantages to telethermography?
1.) Real-time imaging
2.) Very sensitive: Gives the ability to look at numerous areas
What is a disadvantage to telethermography?
Very costly: $30-100k
What are 5 absolute thermometry or thermal scanning instruments/devices?
What are 3 differential thermography scanning instruments/devices?
What is Thermometry also known as?
What does thermometry show?
Temperatures are numerical degrees
What does thermography show?
Color pictures of anatomy being scanned
What is the difference between thermography and thermometry?
Thermography: Shows color pictures of the anatomy being scanned
Thermometry: Shows temperatures as numerical degrees
What are 4 methods of heat transfer?
2.) Infrared Radiation
What are 2 devices that measure conduction?
What are 3 devices that measure radiation?
What are 6 advantages to thermography?
2.) No ionizing radiation
5.) Some portability
What are 5 disadvantages of Thermography?
2.) Strict protocol
3.) Expertise for interpretation
4.) Time consuming
5.) May require a special room
What controls skin temperature?
Sympathetic Nervous System
How does the sympathetic nervous system control skin termperature?
Through vasodilation and constriction of arterioles
What does thermography show?
A measurement of heat and a picture of physiology
Hypothermic transmission begins with the activation of which type of nerve fibers?
Sympathetic nerve fibers are activated via which type of response?
What causes the reflexogenic response which activates sympathetic nerve fibers?
Afferent mechanoreceptor input from spinal joints
What does activation of the sympathetic nerve fibers cause during hypothermic transmissions?
Vasoconstriction along the dermal microcirculation of one or more neurotomes
What is the most common result of chronic spinal neuropathophysiologic conditions?
Decreased thermal emission at the paraspinal and dermatomal level
Hyperthermic emissions are mainly caused by what 2 neurophysiologic mechanisms?
1.) Acute Injury
2.) Decrease or cessation of sympathetic activity
What is the hyperthermic mechanism of acute injuries?
Antidromic stimulation of nociceptive C-fibers cause a peripheral release of substance P, which acts upon arterial receptors causing dilation
What is the result of decreased or cessation of sympathetic activity?
Vasodilation due to a loss of normal dermal vascular tone
Based on the physiology of hyperthermic emissions the body can be divided into _____ and _____.
Dermatomes and thermatomes
Hyperthermic emission physiology should be even side to side or _____?
What temperature differential is representative of nerve dysfunction?
A change in termperatue of > 0.5°C
What organiztion states:
"Central conrol of skin temperature affects both sides of the body uniformly and simultaneously resulting in symmetry of thermal patterns. The presence of significant temperature differences between corresponding areas of opposite sides of the body is suggestive of nerve impairment"
AMA Council on Scientific Affairs
Thermography can detect all components of the VSC except?
Does thermography look at sensory or motor responses?
What is sensory nerve irritation believed to produce?
Reflex vasoconstriction through the Autonomic Nervous System
Sensory nerve irritation causes vasoconstriction of which types of blood vessels?
Arterioles of the skin
What are 4 indications of use for thermography?
1.) Outcome assessment tool
2.) Equivocal clinical findings
3.) Need for medico-legal evidence
4.) Unsatisfactory response to care
What are 7 applications of thermography?
1.) Determine & evaluate existence & extent of VSC
2.) Differential diagnosis
3.) Diagnosis of sensory/autonomic nerve dysfunction
4.) Evaluation for changes in procedure
5.) Monitoring &/or evaluating treatment effectiveness
6.) Objective evidence for permanency evaluation
7.) Differential diagnosis for referral, esp. vascular problems
What are the 4 key areas for proper exam testing & interpretation for Visi-Therm or Telethermography?
1.) Exam room termperature & environment: 68°F
2.) Patient preparation
3.) Proper detector/machine set-up
4.) Recording on film or computer
When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography, patient should not smoke for how long before the exam?
When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography they should not shower, bathe, use powder or lotions.
They can shower and bathe, but not powder or lotions
When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography the patient should have not PT, ice, heat or adjustments.
Unless it is absolutely necessarily, when preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography, there should be no use of braces, sprints, or support collars for how long before the exam?
When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography there can be no sunburn or excessive sun for how long before the exam?
When preparing a patient to test visitherm or telethermography how long should you equilibrate for?
What are 4 things that thermography will show to a D.C.?
1.) If there is a neurological impairment &/or VSC
2.) If a patient is responding favorably or negatively to care
3.) When or when not to adjust
4.) If the patient has permanent neurological impairment (Maximum Chiropractic Improvement)
What are 3 different chiropractic systems of analysis?
2.) Thermal symmetry
What are 2 techniques that follow the pattern system of analysis?
1.) Upper Cervical
What are 2 techniques that follow the thermal symmetry system of analysis devised by Stillwagon?
What technique follows the break pattern of system analysis?
"Subluxations frequently existed far removed fromtheir most evident manifestation and that heat differential redaings did not necessarily indicate location for spinal adjustment"
What would be normal in a vertical analysis of thermal symmetry?
Gradual and smooth increase in temperature
What would be abnormal in a vertical analysis of thermal symmetry?
A change in > 1°F (0.5°C) from sacrum to occiput
What should be the goal of a vertical analysis of thermal symmetry?
Elimination of cold &/or hot spots or areas, where lines radically shift left or right
A shift to the left in vertical analysis of thermal symmetry indicates what?
A shift to the right in vertical analysis of thermal symmetry indicates what?
What are 5 steps in the horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry?
1.) Take R & L paraspinal scans
2.) Mark L & R on scans
3.) Overlay so they overlap according to the mean temperature difference
4.) Look for identical areas for reference points
5.) Look for temperature splits
During horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry R & L paraspinal scans should be done from where to where?
S1 to C0
C0 = Hairline
During horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry where can the mean temperature difference be found on a DTG graph?
What do temperature splits indicate on the horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry?
Horizontal thermal asymmetries
What is the goal of horizontal analysis of thermal symmetry?
Eliminate the thermal splits
Signs and symptoms are the key to care?
Function is the key to care
The 3-D Model of VSC looks at what 3 things?
What is dysautonomia?
Disruption of the anutonomic nervous system (ANS)
What is dyskinesia?
Abnormal motion & or position of the vertebra
What is dysponesis?
A reversible physiopathologic state of consisting of unnoticed, misdirected neurophysiologic reaction to various agents and the repercussions of those reactions throughout the organism
Dysponesis or the error of energy expenditure is capable of producing what?
What physiologic error results in dysponesis?
Covert errors in action-potetial output from the motor and premotor areas of the cortex and the consequences of that output
What are the 5 steps of dysponesis?
1.) Correctable or reversible changes
2.) Neurophysiologic or abnormal function
4.) Errors of energy expenditure
5.) Functional disorders
Thermography can differentiate what 4 things?
1.) Visceral & somatic complaints
2.) Sympathetic defense mechanisms (RSDS)
3.) Direct neurological conditions
4.) Local skin phenomena
What is the most objective measurement and recording of ANS function related to skin vasomotor control?
Dysautonomia is measurable with _____.
Dyskinesia is measurable with _____.