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Flashcards in 2 Urban Challenges Deck (16):

Causes of urbanisation and rapid population growth

- Industrial revolution
- Rural to urban migration
- Natural increase
- Job opportunities (agricultural technology)


Factors affecting the rate of urbanisation

Push factors
- drought (leading to famine)
- flooding
- political unrest/war
- land shortage
- lacking employment
- poor education/health services

Pull factors
- higher standard of living
- job opportunities
- closer to health services
- colleges/universities
- better social environment


Where are mega cities located and why?

- South east Asia because they are industrialising now/recently (urbanisation)
- Lacking availability of birth control, poor health services and LEDCs aren’t educated about family planning
- Infant mortality rate is higher
- Cultural reasons to have larger families


Patterns of urban growth

Countries south of the grant line are industrialising now (urbanisation).
- south east Asia industrialising rates are speeding up, higher urbanisation


Patterns of rapid growth

- African counties have a higher rapid urban growth, no contraception for religious beliefs
- Cultural to have larger families
- Lack of education and family planning


How and why had Rio de Janeiro grown?

They have rapidly grown in the last 50 years because of industry, administering, commercialism and the tourist centre.
Rio de Janeiro is the second largest city in Brazil and also a Newly Emerging Economy (NEE).


Land use of Rio

- oldest area
- shopping, financial centre, oil and mining company

North zone
- main industry/port, airports, stadiums and favelas

South zone
- tourist area and location of Rocinha the largest favela

West zone
- lower class to wealthy
- industry and stadium



- largest favela in Rio
- 75,000 people (2010)
- built on steep hillside overlooking wealthy areas


Improvements and results in Rocinha

- 90% houses are made of brick
- electricity, running water and sewage system
- may have TVs and refrigerators
- retail, school and health facilities are accessible
- private university


Opportunities of urban growth

- development of tourist hotels and beaches (e.g. Copacabana)
- large industry and shipping ports for trade
- luxury flats, shopping malls and tourist facilities
- Olympic and World Cup stadiums/facilities
- headquarters of Petrobas and CVBB (Brazil’s largest oil and mining company)


Social challenges of urban growth

- healthcare services are very poor: only 55% or city had a local clinic
- poor education: only half of children continue school after 14
- water: 12% do not have access to clean running water
- energy: shortage of electricity meaning blackouts occur


Economic challenges of urban growth

- high unemployment rates: 20%+ in favelas, 3.5 million in the informal sector
- gang crime: drug trafficking in favelas


Environmental challenges of urban growth

- traffic congestion: car ownership increased by 40%
- waste problems: lack of waste disposal facilities
- water pollution: Guanabara Bay highly polluted from open sewage


Social solutions of urban growth

- healthcare: medical staff taking health kits to people’s homes
- education: grants are being provided to schools, encouraging volunteers and they have opened a private university
- water: quantity and quality improved with new treatment
- energy: power lines, generators and a renewable complex


Economic solutions to urban growth

- unemployment: educate them, ‘schools of tomorrow’ programme (also for adults)
- crime: UPP police units made to reclaim favelas from drug trafficking/dealers


Environmental solutions to urban growth

- traffic congestion: motor system expanding, new toll roads which will reduce costs
- waste pollution: power plants set up near university of Rio
- water pollution: 12 new sewage works, ships fined for illegal discharged fuels