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Flashcards in 2. Vinny Lahey Deck (64):
1

What are the 4 general functions of connective tissue?

provide structural support
provide medium for exchange
defense/protection
storage of adipose

2

What are the 3 important characteristics of connective tissue?

derived from mesenchyme
support cells separated/produce matrix
cells adhere to matrix

3

Extra cellular matrix is also known as what?

ground substance

4

Extra cellular matrix is made of what what 3 things?

- GAG’s (mucopolysaccharides)
- Proteoglycans
- Adhesive Glycoproteins

5

GAG’s (mucopolysaccharides) are hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophilic

6

"Protein core with many sulfated GAG’s attached" describes what component of ground substance?

Proteoglycans

7

Laminin and fibronectin are associated with what component of ground substance?

adhesive glycoproteins

8

INCREASED fluids and defense cells is a positive aspect of what process?

inflammation

9

Excessive swelling can damage blood vessels, nerves, and cells is a negative aspect of what process?

inflammation

10

Whats the most common type of collagen? What is it known for?

Type 1; great tensile strength

11

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is a pathology associated with improper production of what?

type 1 collagen

12

When does college 1 fiber production slow and fibers become weaker?

as we age

13

Deficiency of what leads to rapid breakdown, and potentially scurvy?

vitamin C

14

What type of fiber is composed of elastin/microfibrils, stretch 150%, important in blood veseels/lungs,and are produced by fibroblasts/smooth muscle cells?

elastic

15

What happens to elastic fibers in elastic cartilage when we age?

decrease in number

16

Although few pathologies are associated with elastic cartilage, what is one that is well known?

Marfan syndrome

17

What type of fiber is the same as collagen 3, common in liver, bone marrow, and lymph nodes, is easy to produce, and last 3 days?

reticular

18

What affect does aging have on reticular fibers?

none

19

What fibers are the first to be produced during wound healing?

reticular

20

What cells in CT are derived from mesenchyme, *very important in ordinary CT, and may divide during *initial wound healing/growth factors?

fibroblasts

21

Fibroblasts produce CT/maintain matrix (fibers/ground substance) giving them what?

structure

22

Fibroblasts produce growth factors (scar formation) giving them the ability to do what?

heal

23

Fibroblasts produce cytokines/enzymes (can phagocytize) making them what?

defensive

24

What cells in CT are mature, less active than fibroblast, appears flat, and long lived with *low energy and oxygen requirements (low blood supply)?

fibrocytes

25

What is the function of fibrocytes?

maintain structure, CAN’T heal

26

What do fibrocytes produce?

hyaluronic acid, ground substance, reticular fibers

27

What type of cells possess features of fibroblasts but for smooth muscle cells?

myofibroblasts

28

What are the functions of myofibroblasts?

wound healing, tooth eruption

29

Do adipocytes AKA lipocytes divide?

no

30

What are the 2 main functions of adipocytes? What hormone does it produce?

lipid storage and regulates energy metabolism
*produces Leptin = satiety hormone

31

What cells are found in CT and lymphatic tissue/B lymphocytes, not found in blood, and have large cells with spherical “clock face” nucleus?

plasma cells

32

What is the function of plasma cells?

produce immunoglobulins/antibodies

33

What are large cells, kidney shaped nucleus, and contain residual bodies in their cytoplasm?

Macrophages (Histiocytes)

34

What are some function of macrophages?

phagocytosis, APC (antigen presenting cell), create foreign body giant cells, cytokines

35

What cells are derived form bone marrow?

mast cells

36

Histamine, heparin, eosinophil chemotactic factor, neutrophil chemotactic factor, and leukotrienes are produced by what cells?

Mast cells

37

What cells are activated by direct cell trauma, phagocytosis, or IgE-allergen complex?

Mast cells

38

Adult stem cells that can change into other cell types describe what type of cells?

mesenchyme cells

39

What type of cells are derived from mesenchyme that make reticular fibers?

reticular cells

40

What are 4 mast cell mediated events?

1. Basic inflammatory reaction
2. Immediate Hypersensitivity Response
3. Anaphylaxis
4. Asthma

41

Stimulus = phagocytosis, trauma (dead cells/broken fibers)
Reaction = histamine reacts first, heparin and ECF react last (counteract)

This describes which mast cell mediated event?

Basic inflammatory reaction (cut to the skin)

42

Stimulus = IgE/allergen complex
Reaction = local inflammatory response at site of contact

This describes which mast cell mediated event?

Immediate Hypersensitivity Response (simple allergy)

43

Stimulus = MASSIVE IgE production (severe allergic reaction)
Reaction = SYSTEMIC inflammatory response
Anaphylactic shock = circulatory shock leads to cardiovascular collapse (caused by extensive internal bleeding)

This describes which mast cell mediated event?

Anaphylaxis (general process)

44

The release of Leukotrienes cause inflammation of lungs describe what mast cell mediated event?

Asthma

45

What type of asthma typically occurs in childhood and is due to allergens in the air?

extrinsic asthma

46

What type of asthma typically affected adults and may follow respiratory illness

intrinsic asthma

47

What leukocyte becomes macrophages in CT?

Monocytes

48

What leukocyte is a phagocyte and is attracted to acute inflammation?

Neutrophils

49

What leukocyte fights parasites and is attracted to allergic inflammation?

Eosinophils

50

What leukocyte is similar to MAST cells and initiate/maintain/influence inflammation?

Basophils

51

What leukocyte has humoral AND cell-mediated immunities, and is attracted to chronic inflammation?

Lymphocytes

52

Larger number of cells/types, fewer fibers, increased amounts of ground substance, vascular. This describes what type of CT?

loose CT

53

*Where is loose areolar CT found?

greater/lesser omentum (“filler” CT around blood vessels)

54

*Where is loose irregular CT found?

dermis, papillary layer, beneath organs

55

Fewer number of cells/types, many fibers, decreased ground substance, less vascular. This describes what type of CT?

dense CT

56

*Where is dense regular CT found?

tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses

57

*Where is dense irregular CT found?

dermis/reticular layer, nerve sheaths, organs capsules

58

Reticular cell/fibers, provides support in highly cellular areas/organs. This describes what type of CT?

reticular CT

59

*Where is reticular CT found?

lymphatic/endocrine organs

60

lipocyte aka fat cell, vascular, contains loose areolar CT, This describes what type of CT?

adipose

61

large cells *(uninuclear), store energy, protection, obesity . This describes what type of adipose?

white adipose

62

smaller cells *(multinuclear), found in newborns, function in thermogenesis. This describes what type of adipose?

brown adipose

63

increase number of *cell types and an increase in *vascularity leads to an increase in what?

healing potential

64

What are 3 specialized CT types?

cartilage, bone, and blood