20. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 20. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING Deck (21)
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1

What is genetic engineering?

changing the genetic material of an organism by removing, changing, and/or inserting individual genes

2

Examples of genetic engineering?

Bacteria producing insulin, crop plants which are resistant to herbicides/insect pests OR provide additional vitamins

3

What is meant by the term genetically modified?

The organism receiving the genetic material is said to be ‘genetically modified’, or is described as a ‘transgenic organism’

4

What is recombinant DNA?

The DNA of the organism that now contains DNA from another organism as well is known as ‘recombinant DNA’

5

List advantages of GM crops.

a. reduced use of herbicides and pesticides- better for the environment/ less time consuming for the farmers

b. increased yields from the crops- due to not competing with the weeds for resources/ suffering from pest damage

6

List disadvantages of GM crops.

a. increased costs of seeds
b. increased dependency on certain chemicals- herbicides and pesticides
c. risk of inserted genes being transferred to another plants by pollination
d. reduced biodiversity as there re fewer plants when herbicides have been used,

7

Why is bacteria useful in biotechnology ?

They are useful because they are capable of producing complex molecules (eg certain bacteria added to milk produce enzymes that turn the milk into yoghurt)
They are also useful because they reproduce rapidly, meaning the amount of chemicals they can produce can also rapidly increase

8

Why is bacteria useful in genetic engineering and biotechnology?

-lack of ethical concerns over their manipulation and growth
- genetic code shared with all other organisms
- presence of plasmids
- rapid reproduction
- ability to make complex molecules

9

How is pectinase used in fruit juice production?

Breaks down pectin in plant cell walls (which hold them together) to release contents of the cell = increased yield of juice

10

How is yeast used in biotechnology?

Bread - yeast respires to produce carbon dioxide gas to make dough expand and rise
Beer/fuel - yeast respires anaerobically to make ethanol for beer/biofuel

11

How is penicillin produced?

In a fermenter with optimum pH and temperature, respires aerobically to produce penicillin, all other microorganisms killed to limit contamination and competition, carbohydrate source is restricted as penicillin is only produced when penicillium is stressed

12

Why are plasmids important to genetic engineering (3)?

1 - plasmids are circular and therefore suited to removing and adding new DNA
2 - plasmids are copied independently - copying the added DNA too
3 - scientists insert DNA into plasmids with antibiotic resistance so the bacteria replicates the useful plasmid

13

Benefits of biological washing powder?

Quickly breaking down large, insoluble molecules such as fats and proteins into smaller, soluble ones that will dissolve in washing water
are effective at lower temperatures, meaning less energy (and money) has to be used
can be used to clean delicate fabrics that would not be suitable for washing at high temperatures

14

what is lactase?

Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose, the sugar found in the milk.

15

symptoms of lactose intolerance

nausea, diarrhea and flatulence

16

What are the molecules produced after lactase breaks down lactose?

glucose+ galactose

17

Which fungus produces penicillin ?

Penicillium

18

What are fermenters?

Fermenters are containers used to grow culture microorganisms like bacteria and fungi in large amounts

19

State an advantage of using fermenters?

conditions can be carefully controlled to produce large quantities of exactly the right type of microorganism

20

What are plasmids?

plasmids are circles of DNA found inside bacterial cells

21

Process of Genetic Engineering.

The gene that is to be inserted is located in the original organism
Restriction enzymes are used to isolate the required gene, leaving it with ‘sticky ends’
A bacterial plasmid is cut by the same restriction enzyme leaving it with corresponding sticky ends
The plasmid and the isolated gene are joined together by DNA ligase enzyme
If two pieces of DNA have matching sticky ends, DNA ligase will link them to form a single, unbroken molecule of DNA
The genetically engineered plasmid is inserted into a bacterial cell
When the bacteria reproduce the plasmids are copied as well and so a recombinant plasmid can quickly be spread as the bacteria multiply and they will then all express the gene and make the human protein
he genetically engineered bacteria can be placed in a fermenter to reproduce quickly in controlled conditions and make large quantities of the human protein