20. CBT/REBT (for comps only includes Beck and Ellis)*** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 20. CBT/REBT (for comps only includes Beck and Ellis)*** Deck (13)
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Who developed cognitive behavioral therapy?

Aaron Beck


What main year should you cite for Aaron Beck?

What other years could be important?

1976 - Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders

For depression, anxiety, and SA:
Beck et al. 1979 - Cognitive therapy of depression
Beck et al. 1985 - Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective
Beck et al. 1993 - Cognitive therapy of substance abuse


In CBT, what does treatment focus on (Beck, 1976)?

Modifying thinking > symptom reduction in short-term

Modifying beliefs (underlying dysfunctional beliefs) > leads to lasting change
- Core beliefs influence attitudes/behavior
- Apply to the person/how they think

Treatment focuses on automatic thoughts and re-evaluates them by testing them logically and empirically.


What stages are there for correcting faulty cognitions (Beck, 1976)?

1. Client needs to become aware of what he is
2. Needs to recognize what thoughts are awry
3. Substitute accurate for inaccurate judgments
4. Needs feedback to inform him whether his changes
are correct


What interventions are involved in CBT (Beck, 1976)?

1. Activity scheduling - based on elevating mood
2. Cognitive restructuring - evidence, what are other ways to look at it, and what happens when we do?
3. Distancing - dealing w/ upsetting thoughts objectively
4. Diattribution technique - they are not responsible for all bad things
5. Behavioral experiments - testing beliefs + exposure
6. Role play
7. Others as reference points


What type of dialogue is used when working with a patient in CBT?

Socratic dialogue - Clients are led to make discoveries for themselves by a tactful progression of questioning

Therapy is a collaboration between therapist and client. Therapist should be warm and empathic, but engender a responsible dependency in the patient.


What are major principles in CBT (Beck, 1976)?

1. Evolving formulation - A process of unfolding takes place. First you look at the present, then precipitating factors and developmental events. You identify the behavioral patterns.

2. Good therapeutic alliance - It is collaborative and problem-focused.

3. It is educative AND structured. - You are identifying and modifying cognitions based on a set agenda.

4. Time-limited - You start with weekly sessions then over time you reduce the frequency. After termination, patients might come back for booster sessions.


Describe the theory of CBT (Beck, 1976).

It is an adopted paradigm from an information-processing model. It focuses on non-conscious cognitive processes (DIFFERENT from unconscious) and potential cognitive distortions.

It posits that we all have schemas, or cognitive representations of past experiences that influence our perception of events.


CBT posits different levels of thinking. What are they?

(Beck, 1976).

1. Surface; conscious information

2. Automatic thoughts - quick evaluative thoughts that we accept as true

3. Intermediate beliefs - attitudes, rules, and assumptions (e.g., I must always be the best) that influence automatic thoughts

4. Core beliefs - The deepest beliefs we have that influence how we interpret everything. These come from our attempts to make sense of our early environments during early developmental stages. This organizes our experience meaningfully. They can be faulty, but faulty core beliefs can be both learned and unlearned. New beliefs can be reality-based and functional.


How does CBT explain psychopathology (Beck, 1976)?

Psychopathology originates in client’s preconscious constructions of reality, which reflect the client’s underlying cognitive organization (schemas). Life events are interpreted through cognitive lenses (and thoughts), which can lead to a distressed mood and disturbing behaviors.


What is the content specific hypothesis?

Different pathologies are related to different cognitive content.


What are depressogenic beliefs (Beck, 1979)?

Overgeneralizing – if its true for one situation, it applies to any situation that is even remotely similar.

Selective abstraction – the only events that matter are failures, which are the sole measure of myself.

Excessive responsibility – I am responsible for all bad things, rotten events, and life failures.

Self-references – I am the center of everyone’s attention, particularly when I fail at something.

Dichotomous thinking – everything is either one extreme of another.


What is the cognitive triad of depression (Beck, 1970)?

1. Events are interpreted negatively.
2. Depressed individuals dislike themselves.
3. The future is appraised negatively (which gives rise to the automatic thoughts).