2013 NC State Mock Exam Tangent Questions A Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2013 NC State Mock Exam Tangent Questions A Deck (74):
1

1.  What is the formula for calculating the sensitivity of a given assay?

Sensitivity = TP / TP + FN x 100

2

2.  What is the formula for specificity of a given assay?

Specificity = TN / TN + FP x 100

3

3.  What is the formula for the positive predictive value of a given assay?

PV (+) = TP / TP + FP x 100

4

4.  Clinical signs of neuropathic pain can be spontaneous, evoked, or combinations of both.  Signs may be continuous, intermittent, or paroxysmal, and varied in intensity.  On general physical exam, what would be suggestive of a neuropathic etiology?

Presence of sensory, motor, and/or proprioceptive deficits, in addition to signs of pain.

5

5.  _______________, which is increasing pain with repeated stimuli of the same intensity, and _____________, which is a prolonged response to stimuli, are characteristic of ____________ pain.

Summation

after-sensation

neuropathic

6

What are the positive and negative signs from neurological exam that distinguish neuropathic from inflammatory pain?

Cold allodynia, Aftersensations, and paroxysms are often seen with neuropathic pain, but only seen rarely with inflammatory pain.

Hyperpathia (increased threshold and hyperalgesia)  is often seen with neuropathic pain, but never with inflammatory pain.

Inflammatory pain will not show sensory loss or motor deficits in the damaged nerve territory.  Sensory loss is always seen, and motor deficit often seen, with neuropathic pain.

Spontaneous pain is seen in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and therefore cannot be used to differentiate the two.

    

7

7.  List 3 transplantable tumor models in rabbits, and their cellular origin, and use(s) as a model.

Brown Pearce carcinoma - arose from a tumor in rabbit testis, but exact origin is not known; some tumors regress, even with widespread metastasis, is used to study tumor metastasis and immunology

VX-2 carcinoma - originated in a squamous cell carcinoma in a rabbit carrying a Shope papilloma; most commonly used to model various cancer treatment modalities for metastatic tumors

Green melanoma - arose in the flank organ  of a hamster and was not orignially able to be transplanted to rabbit, but subsequent lines are able to be transplanted to rabbit; models physiology and treatment of human ocular melanomas

8

8.  Name the genus and species, and use in research.

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Meriones unguiculatus, Mongolian gerbil

Stroke model - due to incomplete Circle of Willis

Idiopathic Epilepsy model - due to spontaneous epileptiform seizures; seizure-sensitive and -resistant strains have been bred

Territoriality

Parasitic infections - wide variety

 

9

9.  What are acceptable methods of dispensing feed for this species?

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Neither the AWA nor The Guide present specific guidelines for the type of feeder required for gerbils.  The AWA states “The food shall be wholesome, palatable, and free from contamination and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to maintain all animals in good health.”  The Guide recommends that feeders should be designed
to allow ease of access to food, for group-housed animals that enough feeding points should be provided to minimize competition, and that feeders should minimize the opportunity for contamination of food with urine and feces. 

This issue was examined in Mulder et al. 2010. Method of feed presentation affects the growth of Mongolian gerbils. JAALAS 49(1) 36-39.  They conclude a J-feeder or floor-feeding led to greater weight gains than wire bar cage lid feeding.

10

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, the ambient temperature of indoor housing facilities for dogs must not rise above what temperature for more than four consecutive hours?

85 F

11

11.  According to the AWA, whose responsibility is it to ensure that all scientists, research technicians, and other personnel involved in animal care, treatment, and use are qualified to perform their duties?

the research facility

12

12.  According to The Guide, who is responsible for determining that personnel performing surgical procedures are appropriately qualified and trained in the procedures?

the IACUC and AV

13

13.  Describe the most significant subclinical viral infection in this species which can cause disease in other susceptible species.

Saimirine herpesvirus 1, Alpha herpesvirus, aka Herpes T, Herpes tamarinus

In host, usually no clinical disease, sometimes ulcerative lesions in mouth, and shed in saliva in squirrel monkeys

Can cause severe disseminated disease in Owl Monkeys ((Aotus spp.), Marmosets (Callithrix spp.), and tamarins (Sanguinus spp.)

14

14.  What is the taxonomy, host, and clinical disease of simian varicella virus?

Cercopithecine herpesviruses 6, 7, 9 compose group known as SVV.

Reservoir host not identified.  However, serum neutralizing antibodies have been found in stump-tailed macques (M. arctoides) with no clinical disease.

Macaques, African Greens, and Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are susceptible. Disseminated vesicular exanthema and death results in 48 hours.  Vesicles and IN inclusions with necrosis in liver, kungs, and GI tract are present.

15

15.  Name genus and species, and use in research.

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Prarie vole, Microtus ochrogaster is pictured, but looks very similar to the Eastern prarie vole, M. pennsylvanicus 

M. orchrogaster used to study physiology of vomeronasal organ and how chemosensory cues affect courtship, territorial marking, aggression, and reproduction.  Also, M. ochrogaster is monogamous, and studies have focused on neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin control of pair-bonding, paternal care, maternal care, and mate-guarding.

M. pennsylvanicus  is polygamous and somewhat antisocial, and is used as a contrasting species in the above studies.

16

16.  Name the genus and species and use in research.

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Spermophilus beecheyi, California ground squirrel (LEFT).

Spermophilus elegans, Wyoming ground squirrel (RIGHT).

Hibernation studies

Cholesterol-fed ground squirrels used to study cholesterol gallstones and associated changes in gallbladder epithelium

Hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma has also developed in ground squirrels infected with ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV)

17

Name the genus and species, and uses in research.

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Cynomys ludovicianus, Black-tailed priarie dog

Model for biliary physiology, pathophysiology of gallstone formation.  Prarie dog had accessible gall bladder which lies on ventral surface of right lobule of liver.

Also a model for antibiotic-induced diarrhea. Cefoxitin induces Clostridium dificile cecitis in this species, with a more chronic course than other such animal model species.

18

Name the genus and species and use in research.  Unique husbandry requirements?

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Dipodomys spectabilis, Banner-tailed kangaroo rat

Used to study renal physiology, water conservation, disuse osteoporosis, evolutionary neuroanatomy, and marginal decompression sickness.

Do not provide ad lib water.

Require dust baths.

Very aggressive towards one another and highly territorial.  They can be housed together only in extremely large areas.

19

Name genus and species and use in research.

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Neotoma floridana, Eastern wood rat

Used in behavioral and neurological studies.

A source of numerous zoonotic microorganisms: 

  1. murine typhus (Rickettsia typhus)
  2. Brucella neotomae
  3. Trypanosoma cruzi
  4. Leishmania mexicana
  5. Yersinia pestis
  6. Lyme disease (Borrelia borgdorferi)
  7. human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia phagocytophila)
  8. arenaviruses
  9. hantavirus

Also, N. micropus contains an antihemorrhagic factor in serum against rattlesnake venom, similar to the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), and opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

20

Name genus and species and use in research.  

Unique husbandry considerations?

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Onychomys leucogaster, Northern grasshopper mouse

  1. Behavior studies including aggression, predation, sex differences
  2. Lyme disease (Borrelia borgdorgeri)
  3. effect of photoperiod and melatonin on seasonal gonadal cycles
  4. comparative antibody formation
  5. cancer induction
  6. population dynamics using DNA and mitochondrial analysis

Require dust baths, nocturnal, prone to seizures (like Mogolian gerbils) and prevalence is affected by preweaning environment.

 

21

Name genus and species and use in research.

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Peromyscus leucopus, White-footed deer mouse.

P. leucopus and P. maniculatus readily adapt to laboratory environment.  Used to study genetics, physiology, aging, cataracts, behavior.

Also used to study zoonotic diseases:  

  1. sin nombre and other hanatviruses
  2. Lyme disease
  3. vesicular stomatitis virus
  4. granulocytic ehrlichia
  5. babesiosis
  6. trypanosomiasis
  7. tularemia

22

Name the genus and species and use in research. 

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Oryzomys palustris, Rice rat

  1. Spontaneously develops dental disease, which is accelarted by a high sucrose diet.  Used to study effects of drugs, vitamin E, and rotational stress on periodontal bone resorption.
  2. effect of photoperiod on reproduction, especially melatonin and the pineal gland.
  3. Robertsonian tranlocation polymorphisms exist within the species characterized by varying diploid numbers: 50, 49, 48, and 46.

23

Name genus and species and use in research.

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Zygodontomys brevicauda, Cane mouse

  1. Used to study mammalian circannual reproductive cycles this is one the few tropical species which lack a reproductive response to photoperiod.
  2. Evolutionary quatitative genetics
  3. Viral diseases such as: arborviruses, yellow fever virus, Nariva virus (rodent parmyxovirus), Venezualian equine encephalomyelitis virus, Cocal virus (rhabdovirus),and  Guanarito virus (cause of Venezuelian hemorrhagic fever - VHF)

24

Name genus and species and use in research.

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Sigmodon hispidus, Cotton rat

These human paramyxoviruses replicate well in the cottonn rat:

  1. respiratory syncytial virus
  2. parainfluenza virus 3
  3. measles

Also, cotton rats can be infected with human adenovirus, and are the only animal model of ocular adenovirus causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.

Solitary and high dominance heirchy, and aggressive towards one another, sometimes fighting to the death.

25

Name genus and species and use in research.

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Mystromys albicaudatus, White-tailed rat

  1. Spontaneously develop diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, polyuria, glycosuria, ketonuria, degenerative changes in islets.  Not associated with obesity.  More common in males.  Models for diabetic angiopathy, and diabetic mitochondrial dysfunction.
  2. Models for cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania braziliensis. L, donovani, L. mexicani) including vaccine studies.
  3. Model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
  4. Model for dental caries with infection with Streptococcus spp.
  5. Chemical-induced carcinogenicity
  6. Thermoregulation and digestion

26

Name genus and species and use in research.

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Mastomys natalensis, Multimammate rat

Hosts to many zoonotic diseases:

  1. Yersinia pestis
  2. Mycobacterium ulcerans
  3. leptospirosis
  4. Lassa virus
  5. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
  6. Protozoans:  Leishmania spp, Plasmodium berghei, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma brucei rhodensiense
  7. Nematodes:  Nippostrongylus, Dipetalonema, Brugia, Litosomoides, Acanthocheilonema, Wucheria, Capillaria
  8. Trematodes: Schistosoma mansoni

Also, spontaneously develops gastric carcinoma and models Zollinger Ellison syndrome, especially the role of hypergastrinemia and CCK/gastrin receptors and realtionship to histamine on tumor formation.

27

Name genus and species and use in research.

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Octodon degus, Degu

  1. Precocious neonates used to study neurobiological development
  2. Diurnal and used to model circadian and sleep/wake cycles.
  3. Develops spontaneous diabetes mellitus with islet amyloidosis.  Cytomegalovirus-induced insulinitis, alpha-cell crystals with herpes-type virus presence, guinea pig chow or fresh fruit diets are all associated with diabetes development.  Diabetic degus will develop cataracts within 4 weeks.

Require dust baths

28

9.  For which of the following species is semen collection not possible using an artificial vagina?

 

a. Rabbit
b. Bull
c. Dog
d.  Mouse
e. Semen can be collected from all of the above with this technique
 



Answer: d. Mouse
Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002 Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 23 – Techniques of Experimentation, p. 1025
Domain 4; Primary Species - Mouse (Mus musculus)

29

10.   How long does an institution that has received deferred accreditation by AAALAC, International have to correct mandatory deficiencies?

2 months

30

How long does a previously accredited institution that has received conditional accreditation by AAALAC, International have to correct mandatory deficiencies?

Correction of mandatory item(s) must be reported in next annual report, or at the discretion of the Council.

31

How long does a previously accredited institution that has received probationary accreditation by AAALAC, International have to correct mandatory deficiencies?

By vote of Council, up to a total of 12 months.

Note that these are not calendar months, but rather represent the number of months granted by Council in each letter to the institution. If adequate correction of the mandatory item(s) is not achieved within the allotted time, proceedings to revoke accreditation are initiated.

32

If AAALAC decides to revoke accreditation for an institution, when does this become effective?

The institution remains accredited during the appeal process. Should the institution appeal this decision and the appeal(s) be unsuccessful, the institution is no longer accredited.

33

If a new applicant to AAALAC receives conditional accreditation, when does the institution become accredited and how long do they have to correct deficiencies?

This is the same with a previously accredited institution.  They are accredited right away but must report correction(s) on the next annual report, or at the discretion of the council.

34

If a new applicant is awarded provisional status, when does institution becomes accredited and how long do they have to correct mandatory item(s)?

Institution is not accredited until corrections have been adequately addressed.  Institution has up to 24 months by vote of Council.

These are not calendar months, but months granted by Council in letter to institution.

35

What are characteristics of spontaneous atrial thrombosis in hamsters?


 

  1. Marked subcutaneous edema ("jelly hamsters")
  2. Usually involves left auricle and atrium
  3. Common in older hamsters
  4. Females usually affected earlier than males
  5. Often associated with amyloidosis
  6. Consistent with consumptive coagulopathy

36

What are the age-related diseases of hamsters?

  1. Hamster glomerulonephropathy
  2. Amyloidosis
  3. Atrial thrombosis
  4. Polycystic Liver disease
  5. Bile duct hyperplasia
  6. Spontaneous neoplasia (rare) - lymphoma (not viral), cutaneous lymphoma resembling mycosis fungoides

37

What was the agent in the anesthetic Saffan that caused           histamine release in dogs?

 

 

 

 

Cremophor

 

 

38

Describe etomidate in dogs and cats.

  • Elicits no changes in cardiovascular function.
  • High incidence of associated excitment (e.g. paddling, vocalization) especially if inadequate preanesthetic sedation.
  • Suppresses glucocorticoid (e.g. cortisol) synthesis by adrenal gland, up to to 6 hours with single dose, longer with infusions.
  • Adrenal effects of infusions have been associated with increased mortality.

39

13. Which of the following rodents is susceptible to tumor induction by simian virus 40 (SV40) of monkey?

a.   Cynomys ludovicianus
b.   Dipodomys spp.
c.   Mesocricetus auratus
d.   Peromyscus leucopus

 

c.  Mesocricetus auratus (Golden or Syrian hamster)

Also susceptible to:

  1. polyoma virus of mice
  2. adenoviruses of humans
  3. Most deep fungal infections
  4. Mycobacterial and leishmanial infections - react with conchoid Schaumann bodies
  5. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  6. tuberculosis
  7. leprosy
  8. atypical mycobacteria
  9. leptospirosis
  10. scrapie
  11. transmissable mink encephalopathy
  12. Creutzfeld-Jacob disease
  13. Gertstmann-Staussler syndrome

BB p. 169. 

40

14. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being for nonhuman primates (NHPs)?

 

a.  Physical environment of the primary enclosure does not need environmental enrichment if nonhuman primates are pair-housed
b.   Individually housed NHP’s must be able to see and hear NHP’s of their own or compatible species unless the attending veterinarian determines that it would endanger their health, safety, or well-being
c.   Great apes weighing over 100 lbs must have special provisions for additional opportunities to express species-typical behavior
d.  Any exemption given by the attending veterinarian from participation in the environment enhancement plan must be reviewed at least every 60 days by the attending veterinarian
 

b. Individually housed NHP’s must be able to see and hear NHP’s of their own or compatible species unless the attending veterinarian determines that it would endanger their health, safety, or well-being


References: 
1) Animal Welfare Regulations, CFR Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 3 – Standards, Subpart D – Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates, §3.81 Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being (August 2002 Edition, pp. 94-95)
2) DiVincenti and Wyatt. 2011. Pair housing of Macaques in research facilities: A science-based review of benefits and risks. JAALAS 50(6):856-863.

41

15. What is the primary source of a major glycoprotein allergen and its size from Oryctolagus cuniculus

Fur, less than 2 µm

Committee on Occupational Safety and Health in Research Animal Facilities, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. 1997.  Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals.  National Academy Press, DC.  Chapter 4 - Allergens, p. 56.

42

What is the major source and size of rat allergen?

urine and saliva:  Rat n 1A pre-albumin and Rat n 1B alpha2-euglobulin

Vary from < 0.5 to > 20 µm

43

What is the major source and size of mouse allergen?

urine, Mus m 1 protein

6-18 µm

44

What is the major source and size of guinea pig allergen?

urine

Most guinea pig allergen activity associated with particles > 5 um, but 10% found on particles < 8 um, which are small enough to penetrate lower respiratory tract

45

What is the major source and size of cat allergen?

protein Fel d 1, produced in sebaceous glands secretions coating skin and hair shafts, and saliva

size varies, but many less than 0.25 um

46

What are the major sources and sizes of dog allergen?

Can f 1, in saliva, hair, skin

Dog albumin also important allergen

Size not well studied.

47

What is the major source and size of NHP allergen?

Sensitization to primates is unusual.  

Cases of sensitivity to dander of lesser bushbaby (Galago sp) and cottontop tamarin (Sanguinus sp) have been reported.

Size has not been studied.

48

What is the major source and size of bovine allergen?

Sensitivity to cattle has been reported in 15-20% of dairy farmers.  Dander and urine.  MW 20-25 kD.

49

What is the source and size of horse allergen?

Nature of allergens not established, but 27 kD from dander, skin scrapings, and albumin important.

50

What is the source and size of major bird allergens?

Exposure to birds can cause rhinitis and asthma symptoms, and a potential source of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, not mediated by IgE.  People with hypersensitivity often have precipitating IgG antibodies to the protein in question.

Various bird proteins have been identified as allergens, found in serum and droppings.

51

16. A Landrace pig presents with a high rectal temperature and tachycardia when induced with halothane anesthesia. What would be the most probable diagnosis and the clinicopathologic abnormalities observed?

Malignant hyperthermia or Porcine Stress Syndrome

hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, myoglobinemia

52

What is the etiology of Porcine Stress Syndrome?

A autosomal recessive mutation with variable penetrance in the  calcium-release channel protein (ryanodine receptor [RYR]) which causes a hypersensitive triggering mechanism in skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum in response to various stressors such as gas anesthetics or stressful enviornmental conditions.

53

In which pig breeds does PSS occur?

 

Landrace, Yorkshire, Duroc, Pietrain, Poland China

Also some reports of miniature potbellied pigs.

 

54

In which species in a malignant hyperthermia or stress syndrome reported?

Swine, humans, dogs, cats, horses

55

Which anesthetics are associated with PSS?

Most commonly halothane and succinylcholine, but also capable is:  methoxyflurane, enflurane, isoflurane.

56

What is the treatment for PSS?

  1. Discontinue anesthetics
  2. 100% oxygen
  3. sodium bicarbonate to combat metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia
  4. Dantrolene - decreases calcium release fro SR while allowing calcium uptake to continue.  Can also be given preventatively.

57

Which of the following laboratory animals is a commonly used model of human otitis media?

a. Cat
b. Chinchilla
c. Degu
d. Gerbil
e. Rabbit
 

b.  Chinchilla

58

How frequently does a tuberculin test need to be administered during quarantine of nonhuman primates?

Every two weeks for the duration of the quarantine                

References: 

  1. Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, p. 724.
  2. Roberts and Andrews. 2008. Nonhuman primate quarantine: its evolution and practice. ILAR J 49(2):145–156.
  3. 42 CFR, Part 71 – Foreign Quarantine, Subpart F – Importations, §71.53 Nonhuman Primates.  (10-1-03 Edition, p. 433)
  4. http://www.cdc.gov/animalimportation/lawsregulations/nonhuman-primates/nprm/questions-answers-importers.html 

59

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, how often must the attending veterinarian review exemptions of individual nonhuman primates from participation in the facility’s environmental enhancement plan if the basis for such an exemption is not a permanent condition?

At least every 30 days


References:

  1. Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Laws, Regulations, and Policies Affecting the Use of Laboratory Animals, p. 24
  2. Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 3 – Standards, Subpart D – Specifications for the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of nonhuman primates, §3.81(e) Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being (1-1-01 Edition, p. 83)

60

What are the regulations regarding canine opportunities for exercise?

Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must develop, and document plan that is approved by the AV for exercise for dogs over 12 weeks of age.

Exceptions are:

  1. individually housed dogs with at least twice the minimum floor space
  2. group housed dogs with at least minimum floor space for each dog
  3. bitches with litters
  4. incompatible, aggressive, or vicious dogs

61

20. What is the primary causative agent of enterotoxemia in rabbits?

Clostridium spiroforme                 

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, pp. 339-340, 342-343.
2) Suckow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP, eds. 2012. The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 13 - Bacterial Diseases, p. 314.
3) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa. Chapter 6 – Rabbit, pp. 264-271, 273-275
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

62

21.   According to the 2007 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, which of the following inhalant anesthetics should not be used alone for animal euthanasia?

 

a. Enflurane
b. Halothane
c. Isoflurane
d. Nitrous oxide
 

Answer: d. Nitrous oxide


References: American Veterinary Medical Association.  2007.  AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia (Formerly Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia), p. 6-7,  (http://www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf )
Domain 2

63

22.  Which of the following statements best describes whole body plethysmography?

 

a.  Invasive, direct method of studying respiratory function in animals
b.  Invasive, direct method for studying cardiac output in animals
c.  Noninvasive, indirect method of studying respiratory function in animals
d.  Noninvasive, indirect method of studying cardiac output in animals
 

Answer: c. Noninvasive, indirect method of studying respiratory function in animals

1) Raşid et al. 2012. Assessment of routine procedure effect on breathing parameters in mice by using whole-body plethysmography. JAALAS 51(4):469-474
2) Foster et al. 2008. Whole-body plethysmography in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) with and without jackets. JAALAS 47(5):52-55
Domain 3

64

23. According to the Guide of the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, solid-bottom caging, bottles, and sipper tubes should be sanitized at least how often?

At least once a week


Reference: National Research Council.  2011.  Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed.  National Academies Press, Washington D.C.  Chapter 3 - Environment, Housing and Management, p. 70
Domain 4

65

24. According to the Guide for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals and the Animal Welfare Act, ventilation openings located on two opposing walls of the primary enclosure used to transport live dogs must meet all of the following requirements EXCEPT?

 

a. At least one third of the ventilation area must be located on the upper half of the primary enclosure
b. Openings must be at least 16% of the surface area of each wall
c. Projecting rims be located on the exterior of each enclosure wall lacking a ventilation opening
d. Total combined surface area of the ventilation openings must be at least 14% of the total combined surface area of all the walls of the primary enclosure
 

Answer: c. Projecting rims be located on the exterior of each enclosure wall lacking a ventilation opening

1) National Research Council. 2006. Guide for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Appendix A- Summary of the Animal Welfare Act Regulations Pertaining to Transportation. p. 99.
2) Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 3 – Standards, Subpart A – Specifications for the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of dogs and cats, §3.14(c)(1)(i-iv)(2) Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.  (1-1-00 Edition, p. 55).
Domain 5; Primary Species - Dog (Canis familiaris)

66

25. A technician at your facility wants to take the CMAR exam. She has a bachelor’s degree in animal science, has worked at your facility for 5 years, and has been as a manager of colony resources for the past 3 years.  Does she qualify for taking this exam? Why or why not.

 

a. No; does not have the necessary formal education
b. No; does not have the necessary experience working in a laboratory animal facility
c. No; does not have the necessary experience working in a managerial capacity in a laboratory animal facility
d. Yes; meets all necessary requirements and qualifies to take the exam
 

Answer: d. Yes; she meets all necessary requirements and qualifies to take the exam


Reference: http://www.aalas.org/certification/cmar.aspx
Domain 6

67

26.  All of the following factors have been associated with a greater incidence of chronic progressive nephropathy in rats EXCEPT?

 

a. Dietary restriction
b. Fisher 344 and Sprague-Dawley strains
c. Increased age
d. Male sex
 

Answer: a. Dietary restriction

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 157. 
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 2 – Rat, p. 161.
3) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 15 – Metabolic, Traumatic, and Miscellaneous Diseases, pp. 525-526.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

68

27. “C” is used as the approved standard abbreviation for which of the following mouse strains?

 

a.   C3H
b.   CBA
c.   BALB/c
d.   C57BL
 

Answer:  c. BALB/c

1) Pritchett-Corning et al. 2011. Guidebook on Mouse and Rat Colony Management. Charles River Laboratories, Part 5 – Laboratory Mouse and Rat Nomenclature, p. 81.
2) http://jaxmice.jax.org/support/nomenclature/hints.html#hybrid
3) Currer JM et al. 2009. Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice, 6th Edition. The Jackson Laboratory: Bar Harbor, Maine. Chapter 3 – Categories of Laboratory Mice – Definitions, Uses, Nomenclature, p. 34.
4) International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice and Rat Genome and Nomenclature Committee. Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains. October 2011.
http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/nomen/strains.shtml#nois
Domain 3; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

69

28.  Which of the following species requires sand bathing in order to keep their coats from becoming oily?

a. Mastomys natalensis
b. Meriones unguiculatus
c. Mesocricetus auratus
d. Microtus californicus

Answer: b. Meriones unguiculatus

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 5 – Biology and Diseases of Hamsters, pp. 178-179; Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, pp. 276-277, 281, 283
2) Suckow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP, eds.  2012. The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 52, p. 1138
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

70

29. According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, each nonhuman primate must be offered food and potable water within _______ hours before being transported in commerce.

4

Reference: Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 3 - Standards, Subpart D - Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates, §3.89 Food and Water Requirements. (11-01-05 Edition, p.102)
Domain 5

71

30. Which of the following inbred strains of rats has congenital genitourinary anomalies?

a.  ACI
b.  BUF
c.  F344
d.  LEW

ACI

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. Laboratory Animal Medicine 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 4 - Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 122 (Table I)
2) www.harlan.com/products_and_services/research_models_and_services/research_models/aci_inbred_rat.hl
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

72

31. How many minutes after immersion in 1 or 3 g/L of tricaine methanesulfonate does CNS depression in frogs occur? 

 


 

30


Reference: Lalonde-Robert et al. 2012. Electroencephalographic and physiologic changes after tricaine methanesulfonate immersion of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).  JAALAS 51(5):622-627.
Domain 2; Secondary Species – African Clawed Frog (Xenopus spp.)

73

32.        Which of the following rodents is used as a model to study monkeypox virus in the laboratory?

 

a. Cynomys ludovicianus
b. Geomys bursarius
c. Graphiurus kelleni
d. Marmota monax
e. Sigmodon hispidus
 

 

Answer:  c. Graphiurus kelleni

1) Suckow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP, eds.  2012. The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 47 - Dormouse, pp. 1089, 1092.
2) Kastenmayer et al. 2010. Management and care of African dormice (Graphiurus kelleni). JAALAS 49(2):173-176.
3) http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2003/03-27557.htm
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other Rodents
 

 

74

33.   What is the main purpose of a Venturi valve in a laboratory animal facility?

Maintains constant airflow, independent of air pressure, indefinitely without requiring recalibration or routine maintenance

 

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 21 - Design and Management of Animal Facilities, p. 923.
2) http://www.triatek.com/products/Venturi-Valve.html
3) http://www.tsi.com/en-1033/products/2266/venturi_valves.aspx
Domain 4