Genus and species? How long quarantine? Listed under which CITES appendix?
Newly imported primates must be quarantined for a minimum of 31 days at a CDCP-registered import facility, with TB tests every two weeks.
Currently listed under Appendix II, but is under review as it is considered critically endangered.
Genus and species, CITES appendix, and main use(s) in research?
Sanguinus oedipus (cotton-topped tamarin)
Used as models of chronic colitis and colon cancer
Endangered - Appendix I, as are
- S. bicolor
- S. geoffroyi
- S. leucopus
- S. martinsi
1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, p. 686.
2) Wood JD, Peck OC, Tefend KS, Rodriguez-M MA, Rodriguez-M JV, Hernández-C JI, Stonerook MJ, Sharma HM. 1998. Colitis and colon cancer in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus nubis nubis ) living wild in their natural habitat. Dig Dis Sci 43(7):1443-53.
Domain 3; Secondary species – Marmoset/Tamarins (Callitrichidae)
What is the maximum number that can be transported in a primary enclosure according to the Animal Welfare Act Regulations?
1) 9 Code of Federal Regulations Chapter I, Subchapter A, Part 3.36. Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters
Domain 5; Secondary Species – Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)
According to recent articles regarding the pictured procedure in mice, at what age may the administration of analgesia or anesthesia be warranted?
17 days old
1) Jones CP, Carver S, Kendall LV. Evaluation of Common Anesthetic and Analgesic Techniques for Tail Biopsy in Mice. JAALAS 51, Number 6, November 2012, p. 813.
2) Hankensen FC, Garzel LM, Fischer DD, Nolan B, Hankensen KD. Evaluation of tail biopsy collection in laboratory mice (Mus musculus): vertebral ossification, DNA quantity, and acute behavioral responses. 2008, JAALAS 47, Number 6, November 2008, pp. 10-18.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)
What is the object in this picture used for?
1) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds. 2008. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Elsevier Inc., San Diego, CA. Chapter 5 – Anesthesia Delivery Systems, p. 161.
Genus and species, sex, life cycle, and transmission of pictured rodent mites.
Myocoptes musculinus - most common ectoparasite of laboratory mouse
left is female, right is male
Life cycle 8-14 days
Transmission requires direct contact. Mice separated by wire screens do not transmit, nor does bedding.
What is the life cycle range of this mite found in mice?
8 – 14 days
Myocoptes musculinus female pictured
1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 3, p. 104.
Domain 1;Primary Species– Mouse (Mus musculus)
Identify the rodent mite pictured.
Left is male, right is female.
Note two tarsal claws on leg 2.
Identify the rodent mite pictured.
Life cycle is 23 days. Infestation may result in hypersensitivity dermatitis, to which C57BL/6 are highly susceptible.
Note the one claw on leg 2.
Kidneys from a Syrian hamster. What is the most likely disease, and give one differential. Is there a sex or age predilection? How to definitively diagnose?
Amyloidosis is the principle cause of death in long-term experiments.
Differential diagnosis is hamster glomerulonephropathy, which can also occur concurrently with amyloidosis.
Females are three times more likely to develop than males. Sex hormones regulate amyloid expression, and testosterone inhibits production and development of amyloidosis. Most common in hamsters 15 months or older, but can be seen as early as 5 months.
Congo Red or thioflavin T normally reliablly stain amyloid. Deposits may be negative using alcian blue-PAS staining method.
1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 5 – Biology and Disease of Hamsters, p. 188.
2) Percy, Dean H., Barthold, Stephen W. 2007. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits 3rd Ed. Blackwell Publishing: Ames, IA Chapter 3- Hamsters pg 200-201
Domain 1 – Secondary Species – Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)
Rabbit feces. Describe the two types of feces and the significance.
Hard and soft pellets. The colon is dicvided into proximal and distal portions by the fusus coli, which regulates the elimination of hard versus soft pellets. Hard pellets comprise about 2/3 of fecal output. Soft pellets or cecotrophs are usually consumed directly from the anus and have high moisture content, and are rich in nitrogen-containing compounds and B-vitamins niacin, riboflavin, pantothenate, cyanocobalamine.
1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, p. 332
2) Harkness JE, Turner PV, VandeWoude S, Wheler CL. 2010. Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents, 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell: Ames, IA. Chapter 2 – Biology and Husbandry, p 35.
Domain 4; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Genus and species, gestation, age at sexual maturity, and husbandry considerations?
Sigmodon hispidus (Cotton rat) - wide variation in chromosome number between species
Gestation is 27 days
Sexual maturity at 40-60 days
Very aggressive, solitary, and omnivorous. Should wear gloves when handling, and singly house.
1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, p. 271.
2) Sukow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP, eds. 2012. The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster and Miscellaneous Rodents. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 49 – Cotton Rat, pp. 1101-1109.
Domain 4; Tertiary Species – Other Rodents
Kidney from a juvenile rabbit. Most likely diagnosis?
Lymphoma / Lymphosarcoma
Lymphoreticular neoplasma are the most common malignancy in juvenile and young adult domestic rabbits of genus Oryctolagus. Are the second most common tumor in adult rabbits.
Unique pattern of organ involvement. Lymphoid organs are variably involved, whereas kidney and gastric mucosa are the most common sites.
Suckow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP eds. 2012. The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster and Other Rodents. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 16 – Rabbit Neoplasia, pp. 469-473.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW. 2007. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed. Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa. Chapter 6 – Rabbit, p. 305-306.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
According to the Animal Welfare Regulations, this item should be kept for ______________ after the animal is euthanized or dies, and the identification number can be reused ____________ after the animal is euthanized or dies.
One year; five years
Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Ch. 1, Subchapter A – Animal Welfare, Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart C – Research Facilities, §2.38(g) (11,12) Miscellaneous (11/2008 Edition) p. 31.
A young rabbit exhibits torticollis, ataxia, paresis, opisthotonos, convulsions and death. The kidney is pictured. What is the top differential, what are other differentials, and how would you definitively diagnose?
Encephalitozoon cuniculi - top differential for neurological signs in all rabbits
DDx: Toxoplasma gondii, lymphosarcoma, otitis interna, Baylisascaris
CNS involvement does not usually occur until at least 30 days postexposure. Classic lesions are nonsuppurative granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, with astrogliosis and perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. Identifiable organisms may not be present. E. cuniculi stains with Gram's (positive), Giemsa, and Goodpasture-carbol fuschin. T. gondii does not stain with carbo fuschin and is Gram negative.
1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, p. 347-348.
2) Porter RS 2011. The Merck Veterinary Manual (19th ed., Parasitic Disease of Rabbits). Retrieved December 12, 2012.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctololagus cuniculus)
What zoonotic pathogen is of concern working with this animal? What are the appropriate practices that are required?
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
All personnel must be informed about the risks. It is rickettsial organism with worldwide distribution. The prevalence among sheep is high througout the U.S. The estimated infectious dose for humans is estimated to be approximately 10 organisms. The placenta of infected sheep contains as many as 109 organisms per gram; milk as many as 105 per gram. The organism is highly resistant to drying. The agent may be present in infected arthropods, or blood, urine, feces, milk, and tissues.
Neither antimicrobial therapy nor serologic monitoring plus culling has led to reliable devlopment of disease-free flocks. Serologic monitoring does not reflect organism shedding.
BSL-2 are required for nonpropogative laboratory procedures. BSL-3 for inoculation, incubation, and harvesting of embryomnated eggs or cell cultures, and the necropsy of infected animals or manipulation of infected tissues.
C. burnetii is a select agent.
What type of behavior is this mouse displaying?
Hindpaw licking is a nociception/nocifensive behavior. Hotplate test measures supraspinally organized behavior.
This is in contrast to the tail-flick test or tail-withdrawal test which measure spinal reflexes.
What is the specific defect shown, and what is the etiology?
Mandibular prognasthism - mandible is normal length and maxilla is short.
Genetic trait inherited as autosomal recessive (mp/mp) with incomplete penetrance.
On necropsy, a SCID mouse was found to have multifocal coalescing hepatic necrosis. The image below is the histopathology of this animal’s liver. Based on these findings, which of the following agents is most likely responsible for the lesions found.
- Coronavirus - large, pleomorphic, enveloped RNA virus
- enterotropic and polytropic strains
- usually subclinical in adult immunocompetent mice
- morbidity seen in suckling mice and immunodeficient strains
- syncytia at borders of necrosis is hallmark, and seen most often in immunodeficient mice
- strain differences in susceptibility inherited as autosomal dominant trait: DBA/2 highly susceptible to MHV-3, whereas A/J are resistant
1. Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 3, p. 75.
2. Barthold SW, Percy DH. 2007. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition. Blackwell Publishing: Ames, IA. Chapter 1 p.33.
Domain 1;Primary Species– Mouse (Mus musculus)
Which mouse strain is prone to the lesion pictured?
Up to 10% of homozygous mice affected by 3 weeks of age. Up to 94% of older homozygotes, with up to 75% with bilateral involvement.
What are the exercise requirements, according to the Animal Welfare Act and regulations, for a dog (24 inches in length and over 12 weeks of age) individually housed in a pen similar to the one pictured here (units are in feet)?
Does not need to be provided with any extra opportunities for exercise because enclosure is not less than 2X the required floor space.
AWA floor space requirements in ft2: (length of dog in inches + 6)2 / 144
- < 15 kg: 8 ft2
- < 30 kg: 12 ft2
- > 30 kg: > 24 ft2
1) Animal Welfare Regulations, CFR Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 3 – Standards, Subpart A – Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats, §3.8 Exercise for Dogs (August 2002 Edition, p. 62-63)
Domain 4; Primary Species – Dog (Canis familiaris)
Guinea pigs were being presented to have diarrhea and weight loss. During necropsy, the following finding was seen. What is the etiology and pathogenesis?
Hypovitaminosis C or scurvy
Lack of enzyme L-glulonolactone oxidase, which converts L-glulonolastone into isomers L-ascorbate and L-dehydroascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is essential in the hydroxylase reactions necessary for the formation of hydroxylproline and hydroxyllysine in the collagen molecule. Vitamin C also necessary for the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acids.