2014-03-07 USMLE Pharmacology - USMLE Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2014-03-07 USMLE Pharmacology - USMLE Pharmacology Deck (114):
1

Sexual side effect of trazodone

priapism

2

2 key side effects of ASA

- GI bleed
- hypersensitivity

3

Classic side effect of bleomycin

pulmonary fibrosis

4

Classic side effect of cyclophasophamide

hemorrhagic cystitis

5

Classic side effect of buproprion

seizures

6

3 classic side effects of isoniazid

- Vit B 6 deficeincy
- lupus
- liver toxicity

7

Classic side effect of cyclosporine

nephrotoxic

8

Classic side effect of PCN

anaphylaxis

9

PCN may cause a rash with which virus

EBV

10

Classic side effect of ACE inhibitors

cough

11

Classic side effect of demeclocycline

diabetes insipidus

12

2 classic side effects of lithium

- diabetes insipidus
- thyroid dysfunction

13

Classic side effect of methoxyflurance

diabetes insipidus

14

2 classic side effects of sulfa drugs

- allergies
- kernicterus in neonates

15

2 classic side effects of halothane

- liver necrosis
- malignant hypertheria

16

Classic side effect of local anesthetic

seizures

17

4 classic side effects of phenytoin

- folate deficiency
- teratogen
- hirsutism
- gum hypertrophy

18

Classic side effect of vincristine

peripheral neuropathy

19

Classic side effect of valproic acid

neural tube defects

20

Isotretinoin is a terrible ______

teratogen

21

Thioridazine classically causes

- retinal deposits
- cardiac toxicity

22

2 classic side effects of heparin

- thombocytopenia
- thrombosis

23

Vancomycin's classic side effect

red man syndrom

24

Classic side effect of clofibrate

increase GI neoplasms

25

Classic side effect of tetracyclines (2)

- photosensitivity
- teeth staining in children

26

Classic side effect of quinolones in kids

cartilage damage (also makes in teratogenic)

27

Classic side effect of quinine

tinnitus, vertigo (cinchonisms)

28

Classic pancreas side effect of morphine

Sphincter of oddi spasm

29

Classic side effect of clindamycin (or other broad spectrum antibiotic)

Pseudomembranous colitis

30

2 classic side effects of chloramphenicol

- aplastic anemia
- chloramphenicol

31

Classic side effect of doxyrubicin

cardiomyopathy

32

2 classic side effects of basulfan

- pulmonary fibrosis
- adrenal failure

33

MAOIs + cheese/wine =

tyramine crisis

34

Classic side effect of hydralazine

lupus

35

Classic side effect of procainamide

lupus

36

Classic side effect of minoxidil

hirsutism

37

2 classic side effects of aminoglycosides

- hearing loss
- renal toxicity

38

Classic side effect of chlorpropamide

SIADH

39

Classic side effect of oxytocin

SIADH

40

Electrolyte side effect of opiates

SIADH

41

2 classic side effects of DDI

- pancreatitis
- peripheral neurology

42

Classic side effect of succinylcholine

malignant hyperthermia

43

Classic side effect of zidovudine

bone marrow suppression

44

3 classic side effects of digitalis

- GI
- vision changes
- arrhythmias

45

Classic side effect ofacetazolamide

metabolic acidosis

46

Trimethadione is a terrible

teratogen

47

Classic side effect of clozapine

agranulocytosis

48

3 classic side effects of SSRIs

- anxiety
- agitation
- insomnia

49

2 Classic side effects of warfarin

- necrosis
- teratogen

50

2 Classic side effects of niacin

- flushing
- pruritus

51

Classic side effect of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors

liver and muscle toxicity

52

Classic side effect of ethambutol

optic neuritis

53

Classic side effect of cisplatin

nephrotoxicity

54

Classic side effect of methylcopa

Coombs positive hemolytic anemia

55

2 major toxicities of HMG COA reductace inhibitors

- liver
- muscle

56

Classic side effect of ethambutol

optic neuritis

57

Classic side effect of metronidazole

Disulfiram-like reaction with alcohol

58

Classic side effect with displatin

Nephrotoxicity

59

Classic side effect of methydopa

Hemolytic anemia (Coombs positive)

60

Electrolyte side effects of thiazides

- hyperglycemia
- hyperuricemia
- hyperlipidemia
- hyponatremia
- hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis

61

Don't give thiazides to patients with this allergy

sulfa

62

2 major side effects of loop diuretics

- hypokalemic metabloic alkalosis
- ototoxicity

63

Only loop diuretic that is not a sulfa

ethacrynic acid

64

Metabolic effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

metabolic acidosis

65

Effect of loop diuretics on calcium

cause calcium extretion (often used as treatment for hypercalcemia)

66

Effect of thiazide diuretics on calcium

calcium retention

67

Which diuretics would you like to avoid in hypercalcemia?

thiazides

68

3 classic side effects of antihypertensives

- sedation
- depression
- sexual dysfunction

69

2 patients to use B-blcokers in cautiously

- Diabetics (mask hypoglycemia)
- Asthmatics

70

Classic side effect of alpha-1 antagonists

1st dose orthostatic hypotension

71

antidote for cholinesterase inhibitors

- atropine
- pralidoxime

72

antidote for quinidine

sodium bicarb (cardioprotective)

73

antidote for TCAs

sodium bicarb (cardioprotective)

74

antidote for Iron

Deferoxamine

75

antidote for digoxin

- normalize electrolytes
- digoxin antibodies

76

antidote for methanol or ethylene glycol

ethanol

77

antidote for benzodiazepines

flumaenil

78

antidote for beta blockers

glucagon

79

antidote for lead

EDTA

80

antidote for copper

penicillamine

81

antidote for gold

penicillamine

82

antidote for opiods

naloxone

83

antidote for carbon monoxide

oxygen

84

antidote for muscarinic blockers

physostigmine

85

Features of serotonin syndrome

- hyperthermia
- rigidity
- myoclonus
- autonomic instability

86

Hyperthermia + rigidity + myoclonus + autonomic instability =

serotonin syndrome

87

MAOI + meperidine =

coma

88

MAOI + SSRIs =

serotonin syndrome

89

Aminoglycosides + loop diuretics =

enhanced ototoxicity

90

Lithium + thiazides =

lithium toxicity

91

3 classic INDUCERS of hepatic enzymes

- barbiturates
- antiepileptics
- rifampin

92

2 classic INHIBITORS of hepatic enzymes

- cimetidine
- ketoconazole

93

HRT is prescribed now for

symptom relief only

94

Why do you give progesterone with estrogen in HRT?

to decrease risk of endometrial cancer (if no uterus, give estrogen alone)

95

4 benefits of estrogen therapy

- decreased osteoporosis
- decreased CAD (?)
- decreased hot flashed
- decreased GU symptoms

96

4 risk of estrogen therapy

- increased endometrial CA
- increased DVT
- ? increase breast CA
- increased gall bladder disease

97

5 more common side effects of estrogen therapy

- endometrial bleeding
- breast tenderness
- nausea
- bloating
- headaches

98

4 absolute contraindications to estrogen therapy

- unexplained vaginal bleeding
- active liver disease
- history of VTE
- history of breast of endometrial cancer

99

8 relative contraindications to estrogen therapy

- seizure disorder
- HTN
- uterine leiomyomas
- familial hyperlipidemia
- migraines
- venous thrombophlebitis
- endometriosis
- gallbladder disease

100

Most common cause of secondary HTN in women

oral contraceptive pills

101

10 absolute contraindications to oral contraceptive pills

- 35+ old smoker
- pregancy/breast feeding
- liver disease
- hyperlipedmia
- HTN/CAD/CVA
- DM with vascular changes
- immobilization/risk of VTE
- sickle cell disease
- estrogen dependent neoplasm
- cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy

102

6 relative contraindications to oral contraceptive pills

- younger heavy smoker
- depression
- migraines
- oligomenorrhea
- amenorrhea without workup
- gallbladder disease

103

Timing of OCPs and surgery

- avoid 1 month before and after surgery because of risk of DVT

104

Screening test needed for those on OCPs

annual pap smear (associated increased risk of cervical CA)

105

4 effects of NSAIDs and ASA

- anit-inflammatory
- anitpyretic
- analgesic
- antiplatelet

106

Difference between ASA and other NSAIDs

ASA bind COX irreversibly

107

Why does tylenol not have anti-platelet or anti-inflammatory effects?

Because it acts centrally not peripherally

108

Acid-base problem with ASA overdose

- respiratory alkalosis
- metabolic acidosis

109

3 renal side effects of NSAIDs

- interstitial nephritis
- papillary necrosis
- acute tubular necrosis

110

ASA allergies are extremely common in this group

asthma and nasal polyps

111

Reye syndrome =

ASA in children less than 15 (setting of virus) --> encephalopathy and liver dysfunction

112

When to stop ASA and NSAIDs prior to surgery

- ASA 1 week before
- NSAIDs 1 day before

113

Treatment of acetaminophen overdose

acetylcysteine

114

How does acetaminophen cause liver failure?

depletion of glutathione --> hepatic necrosis