2014-03-07 USMLE preventive and stats - USMLE preventive and stats Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2014-03-07 USMLE preventive and stats - USMLE preventive and stats Deck (71):
1

Vit A defeciency causes

- night blindness
- scaly rash
- xerophthalmia
- bitot spots
- increased infections

2

Vit A toxicity causes

- pseudotumor cerebri
- bone thickening
- teratogenicity

3

Vit D defeciency causes

- rickets
- osteomalacia
- hypocalcemia

4

Vit D toxicity causes

- hypercalcemia
- nausea/vomiting
- renal stones

5

Vit E defeciency causes

- anemia
- peripheral neuropathy
- ataxia

6

Vit E toxicity causes

necrotizing enterocolitis in infants

7

Vit K defeciency causes

- hemorrhage

8

Vit K toxicity causes

- hemolysis/kernicterus

9

B1 is aka

thiamine

10

thiamine is aka

B1

11

Thiamine deficiency causes

- cardiac failure
- peripheral neuropathy
- Wernicke/Korsakoff syndrome

12

Wet beriberi is

high output cardiac failure from thiamine deficiency

13

Dry beriberi is

peripheral neuropahty from thiamine deficiency

14

B3 is aka

niacin

15

Niacin is aka

B3

16

Niacin defeciency causes

- pellagra: dementia dermatitis, diarrhea

17

B6 aka

pyridoxine

18

Pyridoxine aka

B6

19

Pyridoxine defeciency causes

- peripheral neuropathy
- cheilosis
- stomatitis
- convulsions in infants
- microcytic anemia
- seborrheic dermatitis

20

Only B vitamin with known toxicity

B6

21

B6 toxicity causes

peripheral neuropathy

22

B12 is aka

cobalamin

23

cobalamin is aka

B12

24

B12 defeciency causes

megaloblastic anemia with neurological symptoms

25

Folic acid defeciency causes

megaloblastic anemia without neurological symptoms

26

Vitamin C defeciency causes

- scurvy
- poor wound healing
- hyperkaratotic hair follicles
- bone pain from periosteal hemorrhage

27

Iodine defeciency causes

- goiter
- cretinism
- hypothyroidism

28

Iodine toxicity causes

- myxedema

29

Fluorine defeciency causes

cavities

30

Fluorine toxicity causes

- mottling of teeth
- bone exstoses

31

Zinc defeciency causes

- decrease taste
- rash
- slow wound healing

32

Copper deficiency causes

Menke's disease (X-linked, kinky hair and mental retardation)

33

Boy with kinky hair and mental retardation likely has

copper deficiency with Menke's disease

34

Copper toxicity is seen in this disease

Wilson disease

35

Selenium deficiency causes

- cardiomyopathy
- muscle pain

36

Selenium toxicity causes

loss of hair and nails

37

Manganese toxicity causes

"madness"

38

Manganese toxicity occurs in

miners of ore

39

Chromium defeciency causes

impaired glucose tolerance

40

what causes craniotabes?

rickets

41

What is rachitic rosary?

costochondral beading in rickets

42

Where do bony changes of rickets first occur?

at ends of the radius and ulna

43

What is the most common cause of B12 defeciency?

pernicious anemia

44

Pernicious anemia is what type of disorder?

autoimmune

45

Pernicious anemia is associated with what other disorders

Other autoimmune:
- vitiligo
- hypothyroid
- hypoadrenalism

46

What parasite causes B12 defeciency?

Diphyllobothrium latum (tapeworm)

47

Removal of this will cause B12 defeciency

the ileium

48

What test is used to determine the cause of B12 defeciency?

Schilling test

49

What does perinatal Vitamin K prevent?

hemorrhagic disease of the newborn

50

How do you treat high INR in liver disease

- with FFP, Vit K does not work because need synthetic function of the liver

51

Screening for colon cancer

* Above age 50
- stool occult blood every year
- sigmoidoscopy or double contract enema every 5 years
OR
- colonoscopy every 10 years

52

Screening for prostate cancer

* above 50
- annual rectal exam
- offer annual PSA

53

Screening for cervical cancer

Age 18-65
- each year, if normal x2 then can do pap every 3 years

54

Screening for gynecologic cancers

- age 20-40 pelvic q 3 years
- over 40 pelvic every year

55

Screening for endometrial cancer

endometrial biopsy once at menopause

56

Screening for breast cancer

-20+ monthy self exam
- 20-40 exam q 3 years
- over 40 exam q year and mammography annually

57

Screening for thryoid cancer

20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year

58

Screening for testicular cancer

20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year

59

Screening for ovarian cancer

20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year

60

Screening for thymphoma

20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year

61

Screening for oral cancer

20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year

62

Screening for skin cancer

20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year

63

What adults should get Hep B vaccine?

Anyone who wants it; anyone at high risk (health care)

64

What adults should get influenza vaccine?

- over 50
- high risk
- pregnant during flu season
- contacts of high risk patients

65

What adults should get pneumococcus vaccine?

- over 65
- high risk, including DM

66

What adults should get rubella vaccine

- women of childbearing age who are not immune
- OK in HIV but not other immunocompromised
- no pregnancy within 3 months of vaccine

67

What adults should get Td vaccine

All adults every 10 years

68

Top 3 causes of infant death

- congenital malformations
- prematurity/low birth weight
- SIDS

69

Top 3 causes of maternal mortality (within 42 days of birth of child)

- pulmonary embolism
- hypertension
- hemorrhage

70

How does prevalence affect PPV of a test?

higher prevalence = greater PPV

71

How does sensitivity affect NPV of a test?

more sensitive = greater NPV