Flashcards in 2014 Major Nutrients - Vitamins Deck (59):
Name the nutrient that is needed only in small amounts, but deficiencies of these can cause major problems.
vitamins are needed in small amounts, but deficiencies can cause large problems
What are the two categories of vitamins?
fat-soluble and water-soluble
Which vitamins are not stored in the body, and therefore must be provided for daily in the diet of young ruminants?
In a healthy adult ruminant, the rumen synthesizes (makes) enough of what so that it does not need to be provided?
a healthy rumen will synthesize (make) all the needed water-soluble vitamins needed byt he animal
Name the water-soluble vitamins? the fat-soluble?
water-soluble — Vitamins B and C
fat-soluble — Vitamins A, D E and K
In a healthy lactating dairy cow, what vitamins are commonly supplemented?
Vitamins A, D and E are commonly supplemented in lactating cows
Name three situations when fat-soluble vitamins are especially needed.
-when forages have been stored for long periods of time
-in young animals fed milk replacers or calf starters without hay
-when raising veal calves
-when forage has been rained on
-in periods of stress
-when animals are housed indoors
When young animals are fed milk replacers or calf starters without hay, which vitamins are commonly supplemented?
Vitamins A, D and E are commonly supplemented
What vitamin supplement may help if milk has an oxidized, off-flavor?
The immune system can be boosted by supplementing which vitamin and which mineral?
Vitamin E and selenium
Supplementing Vitamin E along with selenium may boost the immune system, thereby reducing the incidence of what costly illness?
Because fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the animal’s body in large amount for long periods of time, daily intake is not a problem but what is?
toxicity - if supplemented in the diet and stored by the body, they body could end up with too much, which can become toxic (poisonous)
Thiamin is also known which vitamin letter and number?
Normal functions of the central nervous system and energy metabolism rely on what vitamin?
What are the two signs of thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency?
muscular incoordination and progressive blindness
A deficiency of riboflavin can be identified by what two symptoms?
loss of hair, excess salivation
The Vitamin B2 is also commonly known as what?
Which of the B vitamins assists enzymes involved in metabolism?
Which of the B vitamins assists enzymes in the transfer of electrons and must be supplemented in pre-weaned cows?
A deficiency of which B vitamin is characterized by reduced growth and appetite?
A deficiency in niacin is characterized by a reduction in what?
reduced growth and appetite
The vitamin B6 is also known as what?
Which of the B vitamins assists enzymes involved in protein and nitrogen metabolism?
Anorexia, decreased growth and convulsions are signs of deficiency of which vitamin?
Which of the water-soluble vitamins assists enzymes in energy and amino acid metabolism?
pantothenic acid, (Vitamin B5)
A deficiency of pantothenic acid, (Vitamin B5) is characterized by dermatitis around what body parts?
dermatitis around eyes and muzzle
Biotin assists enzymes involved in the transfer of what compound?
Paralysis of the hindquarters of calves is a sign of deficiency of which vitamin?
B7 - Biotin
Which vitamin is a co-enzyme in various metabolic pathways?
Folic acid - B9
Name two symptoms of low levels of folic acid.
low white blood cell count, pneumonia, death
Pre-ruminant calves may be most susceptible to a deficiency of which vitamin that can be identified by a low white blood cell count.
Folic acid - B9
Vitamin B12 is needed for the synthesis of which essential amino acid and which sugar?
amino acid - methionine
sugar - glucose
Proper synthesis of methionine and glucose requires which vitamin?
If the dairy animal’s diet does not contain a sufficient amount of cobalt, the rumen is unable to synthesize a sufficient amount of which vitamin?
Which water-soluble vitamin is involved in fat metabolism?
Fatty liver, weakness and an inability to stand are signs of a deficiency of which vitamin?
A deficiency of which vitamin is not commonly observed in dairy cattle?
Which vitamin is synthesized in the body of ruminants older than three weeks, and whose deficiency is rarely seen?
Which vitamin acts as an antioxidant?
Which vitamin is responsible for normal night vision, healthy bone growth and reproduction?
Night blindness and still births can be signs of a deficiency of which vitamin?
List two signs of a Vitamin A deficiency.
night blindness, still births, retained placentas
A dairy animal suffering from anorexia, scaly dermatitis and hair loss is exhibiting signs of toxic levels of which vitamin?
Name a symptom of Vitamin A toxicity.
Anorexia, scaly dermatitis, hair loss
Why is it important to keep vitamin supplements out of direct sunlight and away from heat?
because certain vitamin degrade over time when exposed to direct sunlight and heat
Which vitamin enhances absorption of calcium and phosphorus?
Name a symptom of Vitamin D deficiency.
Rickets in young animals, softening of bones in older animals
Reduced dry matter intake, reduced milk yield and dry feces can indicate toxic levels of which vitamin?
Which vitamin is known as the sunshine vitamin?
Vitamin D is provided to the animals in adequate amounts by what?
sunlight provides adequate amounts of Vitamin D
Which vitamin has functions similar to the mineral selenium?
Which vitamin acts as an antioxidant, boosts immunity and aids reproduction?
A deficiency of Vitamin E can result in white disease with a color in its name?
white muscle disease
Which of the fat-soluble vitamins rarely builds to toxic levels in the dairy animal?
Supplemental Vitamin E may help reduce the incidence of what costly dairy cattle disease?
Normal blood clotting requires which vitamin?
Name a symptom of Vitamin K deficiency.
Delayed clotting time of blood, hemorrhaging
Why is Vitamin K never supplemented?
Because the rumen microbes synthesize and adequate amount