Flashcards in 20s And Great Depression Deck (87):
A person who embraces new ideals, styles, and social trends
A law passed by Congress in 1919 to enforce the 18th amendment which prohibited the manufacture and the sale of alcoholic beverages
A secret club that sold alcohol during the Prohibition era
The production, transport, and sale of illegal alcohol
Consumer price index
A measure of the cost of basic necessities such as food and housing
The belief that scripture should be read as the literal word of God and followed without question
A young woman who broke up traditional expectations for how women should dress and behave
Theory of evolution
Developed by Charles Darwin, a scientific theory that all plants and animals, including humans, evolved from simpler forms of life over thousands or millions of years
The belief that God created the universe
The idea that the human species should be improved by permitting only characteristics judged desirable to reproduce
A criminal trial that tested the constitutionality of the Tennessee law that banned the teaching of Darwins theory of evolution in schools; science teacher John Scopes was found guilty and fined for his conduct, leaving the Tennessee law intact
What did modernist think about prohibition
They didn't think that drinking was sinful
What did traditionalist think about prohibition
They argued the alcoholism caused crime, violence, and the break ups of family; and thought alcohol was a foreign influence
What did traditionalist think about evolution versus creationism
They disagreed with evolution and didn't want it taught in school
What did modernists think about evolution versus creationism
They believe in evolution and wanted it to be taught in school
Where did traditionalist tend to live
In rural places
Where did modernist tend to live
In urban cities
What did the AAA do?
Paid farmers to plant fewer crocs, helped reduce crops supplies and increase market demand, provided loans to farmers so they could stay on their land
What does the AAA stand for
Agricultural adjustment administration
What amendment band production and sale of alcohol in the United States
What happened for the first time in 1920 cities compared to the rural and suburban areas
More Americans lived in urban centers than in rural places
What percent did the millionaire class jump to and what does this tell us
400%. This tells us that there was an economic boom that helped a lot of people.
Harlem created what kind of music
What's a new negro
Someone who is proud to be black and stood up for the negro
What did the US invest $1 billion into during the 1920s
Construction of highways, bridges, and tunnels, this united more of the country
What happened with credit in the 1920s
More people were buying things on credit and going into debt
What were women doing during the 1920s
Women were finding jobs and careers, the 19th amendment gave women the right to vote
What was significant about the radio
It became as important as the car, and broadcasted the results of the presidential election
Who was Charles Lindbergh
He flew across the Atlantic in the plane the "Spirit of St. Louis"
How did the Hamil brothers change the oil industry
They dug up the hill where the biggest both of oil was discovered. Oil was a much more efficient resource and could do two times what coal could do, the price of oil became much cheaper
I was the Model T so cheap
It was able to be made quickly and efficiently in America is becoming more mobilized and families were able to travel
Was the great migration
When 1 in 7 African-Americans (1.5 million) migrated north
What was the Chicago race riot
It began when a police officer refused to rest a white man for killing a black man. Instead he arrested another black man.
What affect did prohibition have
It created A nation of criminals, and an illegal liquor trade
How did the government finally capture Al Capone
They caught him for tax evasion
What was the Harlem Renaissance
The black renaissance that took place in Harlem, New York, in which there was an explosion in music, writing, and art.
What did Harding focus on
The return to normalcy, which was the way things were before World War I. There was no problem with alcohol, and the government decreased their interference (the return to Laissez-Faire), called this the free enterprise system.
Who used the Republican formula?
Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover
What did Latin America do in the return to isolationism
They removed their military presence and didn't intervene
What happened when the US return to isolationism
They ignored the league of Nations because he didn't want to focus on European affairs
What happened in the Washington Naval conference in 1921
The US participated with other large countries, and agreed to reduce their naval and military power
What was the Kellog Briand pack of 1928
US decided to outlaw war
What was the Dawes plan
A way to get money back from World War I
What did Coolidge do
He cut income tax and got rid of inheritance tax, cut government spending
What did Hoover do
Associationalism- tried to make businesses more affective by getting them to combine, his main goal was to banish poverty
What book did Hoover write
American individualism, he thinks individuals can be successful on their own
What happened to wages in the 1920s
They increased and people have extra income, production costs were cheaper
What were installment plans
Paying for things in installments a certain amount month by month, or by credit
What happened to labor unions
They decreased because their goals were met
What were the Palmer raids
Palmer was in charge and allowed the FBI and CIA to break into homes, businesses, or anyone they assumed was associated with socialism or communism
What was the first red scare
The start of the Palmer raids
How did conservatives respond to the depression
They oppose large governmental efforts to affect change, insisted that charities would take on the task of providing needs to the needy, and that it was local governments responsibility to care. They valued self-reliance, individual responsibility, and personal liberty.
How did liberals respond to the depression
They thought the government should help during the depression and thought the public works should create jobs.
How did radicals respond to the depression
I wanted a totally planned economy
How did Hoover respond to the depression
He tried to keep the government out of the business of the people, he created an organization to bail out the banks, believed that money will trickle down and help the poor
How did FDR respond to the depression
He pledged to do whatever it took to help the needy, has ideas about relief, recovery, and reform.
What was the new deal
FDR's domestic program which aimed to help economic relief.
What were the first hundred days
First hundred days of FDR's presidency, 1 acres passed a record number of bills
What is relief
Measures intended to help unemployed people
What is recovery
Measures to help reverse the economy
What is reform
Measures taken to ensure the depression would never happen again
What were Hooverville's
Places the unemployed lived, they blamed Hoover for the economic crisis
What was the RFC
A government agency created by Congress to provide loans to banks, railroads, and big businesses to keep them from failing
What is social welfare
Government or private social services intended to aid disadvantaged groups
What is the business cycle
Trough, expansion, peak, contraction
What caused the great depression
Under consumption, overproduction, credit, speculation, and the uneven distribution of wealth
What is the Federal Reserve system
The central bank of the United States which conducts monetary policy
What are the functions of the Fed
Ducks monetary policy, rights regulations, supervisors banks to ensure the banking system is working, manages the payment system, offers assistance to the US government and banks
What is monetary policy
The decisions that the Fed makes that affects the national supply of money and credit, to achieve goals such as full employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.
What is the law of supply and demand
When the supply of goods increase, and the demand stays the same, the price of goods will drop. When demand increases, but the supply stays the same, prices will increase.
What is Say's law?
Say's law says that surplus goods will all eventually be bought because prices will go down until everything is sold.
How can you make money from stocks
Dividends are earning share payments to stockholders, investors can sell the stock on the secondary stock market for more than they paid for it
What is speculation
When purchasers see that corporations have gone up points and decide to buy shares, not knowing whether or not the company has actually made a profit.
What caused the dustbowl
A drought, farmers couldn't afford to let their land lie fallow
Who did unemployment greatly affect
Young, elderly, military workers, and African-Americans. Many states didn't hire women if their husbands earned a living wage.
What happened to American families
They suffered psychological stress as well as financial stress, the suicide rate reached an all-time high. Families were forced to leave their homes or move in with relatives. The marriage, birth, and divorce rates all dropped during this time because couples were unable to afford them.
What happened to the malnourished?
Malnourishment led to other sickness, the poor were unable to afford the medical care required, people turned towards soup kitchens for a meal
How the new deal affect workers
Strengthened the labor movement, boosted the power of labor unions
How did the new deal affect women
Eleanor Roosevelt traveled the country and assessed people's needs, some women assumed high government positions, a husband and wife were not both allowed to have jobs causing some women to lose their jobs.
How did the new deal affect African-Americans
They faced discrimination in hiring, but were helped by organization such as the CCC and WPA, continue to face oppression, and anti-lynching Bill was declined by Congress
How did the new deal affect American Indians
John Collier tried to repair damage of ruined Indian cultures and traditions with the Indian New Deal. He ended the policy of force assimilation, encouraged cultural awareness, and pass the Indian recognition act of 1934.
How did the new deal affect Mexican-Americans
They suffered from poverty, unemployment, and failed farms and businesses. More than one third of Mexican-Americans went back to Mexico
What was the legacy of the new deal
American should have a right to economic security, FDR believe in the rights of a job, a decent home, adequately does, medical care and a good education. The Social Security act established our modern welfare state
What was the red summer
The summer of 1919 where there was race riots between whites and African-Americans
What was the Valentine's Day massacre?
When 7 men were killed during the prohibition era led by Al Capone
What was the bonus army
A group of WW1 veterans who marched to the Capitol to demand their promised bonus for fighting in WW1