21-24 Flashcards Preview

Sociology > 21-24 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 21-24 Deck (55):
1

Population

A group of people who live in a specified geographic area

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Census

Counting of a population

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Population composition

The biological and social characteristics of a population including age, sex, race

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Sex ratio

Number of males for every 100 females in a nations population

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Age sex pyramid

Graphic representation of the age and sex of a population

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Fertility

Incidence of childbearing in a country's population

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Mortality rate

Incidence of death

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Migration

Movement of people into and out a country

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Crude birth rate

Number of births given year for every 1000 people in a population

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Fecundity

Potential number of children who could be born if every woman reproduced at her maximum biological capacity

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Crude death rate

Number of deaths in a given year for every 1000 people In a population

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Infant mortality rate

Number of deaths among infants under one year of age for every 1000 people in a population

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Life expectancy

The median number of a years a person can be expected to live under current mortality conditions

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Immigrants

Enter a country to establish permanent residence

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Emigrants

Leave a country permanently

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Growth rate

The difference between births and death, plus the difference between immigrants and emigrants per 1000 population

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Malthusian perspective

Lays out problem
If left unchecked the population would exceed the available food supply

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Marxist perspective

Provides solution
Though the use of technology food can be produced for a growing population

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Neo Malthusian perspective

New problem
Overpopulation and rapid population growth result in global environmental problems

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Urbanization

The concentration of population into cities

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Cosmopolitan

Students, artist, writers, musicians, and professionals who live in the city to be close to its cultural facilities

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Unmarried

And childless people live in the city to be close to work and entertainment

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Ethnic villagers

Live in ethnically segregated neighborhoods

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Deprived

Poor people with dim future prospects

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Trapped

Downwardly mobile persons, older persons, and addicts who cannot escape the city

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Health

State of complete physical, mental, well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity

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Social epidemiology

The study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society's population

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Incidence

The number of new cases of a specific disorder I curing within a given population during a stated period

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Prevalence

The total number of cases of a specific disorder that exist at a given time

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Sick role

Patterns of behavior defined as appropriate for people who are ill

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Social change

The transformation of culture and social institutions over time

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Collective behavior

Activity involving a large number of people that is often controversial and sometimes dangerous

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Institutionalized behavior

Well organized and rather predictable

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Panic

Form of collective behavior in which people in one place react to a threat or other stimulus with irrational, frantic, and often self destructive behavior

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Mob

Highly emotional crowd that pursues a violent or destructive goal

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Riot

Social eruption that is highly emotional, violent, and undirected

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Crowd

Temporary gathering of people who share a common focus of attention and who influence one another

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Casual crowd

A loose collection of people who interact little

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Conventional crowd

Results from deliberate planning. The behavior of people follows a clear set of norms

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Expressive crowd

Forms around an event with emotional appeal

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Acting crowd

Collectivity motivated by an intense, single minded purpose

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Protest crowd

Engages in activity intended to achieve specific political goals

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Contagion theory

Crowds have a hypnotic influence on their members. People forget about responsibility and give into the contagious emotions of the crowd

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Convergence theory

Crowd behavior comes from the particular people who join in.

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Rumor

Unconfirmed information that people spread informally, often by word of mouth

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Gossip

Rumors about people's personal affairs

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Public opinion

Widespread to widespread attitudes about controversial issues

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Social movement

An organized activity that encourages or discourages social change

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Alternative movements

Seek limited change in only a part of the problem. Help people alter their lives

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Redemptive

Target specific people but they seek radical change. Redeem their lives

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Reformative

Aim for only limited social Change but target everyone

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Revolutionary

Seek the transformation of an entire society

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Resource mobilization theory

A variety of resources are necessary for a social movement

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Relative deprivation theory

People who are discontent when they compare their achievements with those of others consider themselves relatively deprived

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Demography

The study of the human population