Flashcards in 2.1- Motor Control, Learning & Development Deck (49):
What is motor control?
Ability to maintain and change posture and movement
What 4 things give us the ability to maintain and change posture and movement?
1. Happens in fractions of seconds
2. largely a result of development and maturation of the neuromotor systems
3. nervous system directs what muscles to use, in what order and how quickly
4. sensory feedback is key
What is key when it comes to motor control?
Motor ________ change over time so motor _________ must also change
What are the 3 Motor Control Theories?
1. Hierachic Theory
2. Systems Model
3. Nasher's Model
As the brain matures, it begins to control posture and movement previously dominated by the primitive reflexes. Initial random movements are followed by maintenance of posture (stability), movement within posture (controlled mobility), and movement from one posture to another (skill). What theory is this?
True/False: Postural control develops cephalocaudal?
What is postural control?
The ability to maintain alignment of the body and is maintained through righting, protective or equilibrium reactions.
What is righting reactions?
The ability to orient the head to keep eyes horizontal in relation to the ground.
What 2 things are associated with the righting reactions?
1. Optical righting reaction
2. Labyrinthine righting reaction
What righting reaction is cued by vision
Optical righting reaction
What righting reaction is cued by gravity?
Labyinthine righting reaction
Extremity movements that occur in response to rapid displacement of the body is?
___________ are extended to prepare for fall
What is most advanced and last to develop, allows the body to adapt to slow changes in relation of center of gravity to the base of support?
______ rotates or bends back towards the base of support
During a protective reaction, what has to extend to prepare for a fall?
During an equilibrium reaction, what has to bend or rotate towards the base of support?
What theory states the brain and spinal centers work together with many systems of the body to develop motor control?
As body systems grow and mature the speed of nervous system responses _______ by producing different _______ responses.
What is the basic functional unit?
motor pattern (rolling, creeping, walking)
What is the relationship between posture and movement?
What is necessary to execute a motor plan?
proper postural positioning
What theory is based on sway strategies?
Nasher's Model has what 3 sway strategies?
What is the Ankle Strategy?
Movement at the ankle's maintains quiet standing on a firm surface
What is the hip strategy?
activated when BOS is narrower, muscles around the hip activate proximal to distal
What is stepping strategy?
if speed and strengh of balance disturbance is great enough, take a step
Without proper _______ __________, motor development can't proceed normally.
Motor development can proceed normally without motor control?
Process that causes a permanent change in motor performance as a result of practice or expertise?
Many ________ motor patterns such as running and throwing are learned in ________
What are the 3 phases of learning?
This phase requires a lot of new conscious thought with new tasks. Children or adults with cognitive or processing deficits have problems in this stage. What stage am I?
Learning takes place through trial and error, sensory feed back is crucial and must practive in a variety of settings...what stage am I?
Task is mastered, it can be conducted and carried out with less attention, what phase am I?
The more closely the practice enviornment resembles the actual environment, the skill will be done in, the better the transfer of learning?
What is Whole part training?
If parts are truly subunits of the task, then working on them individually does enhance learing of the whole task. If parts are not specific to the task, breaking into parts may not help in learning the task as a whole
Parts not subunits of the task may not help learning the task as a whole?
_______ _________ is an essential part of motor development?
What is the Lifespan Approach when it comes to motor development? 3 things.
1. Development can occur in positive direction, infant able to do more as they get older
2. Development can occur in negative direction, speed and accuracy of movement declines after maturity
3. Continuous process is not linear (ups and downs throughout lifespan)
What are the 2 Development Concepts?
What is the Epigenesis Concept?
Develop from simple to complex
-generally develop gross motor before fine, but may be working on more that 1 task at a time at various stages of skill
-1 skill does not need to be perfect before starting the next, and some may be skipped
During the Epigensis stage, one skill needs to be developed before another skill can begin.
What are the elements to Directional Concepts?
1. Cephalic to Caudal-head control develops before trunk UE before LE
2. Proximal to distal-stable base of trunk must develop before movement is superimposed
3. Mass to specific-simple movement to complex movement
4. Gross to fine-large muscle movement to smaller fine control
What control must develop before trunk with the Directional Concepts
Stable base of ______ must develop before movement is superimposed
______ movement to _______ movement