2.1- Motor Control, Learning & Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.1- Motor Control, Learning & Development Deck (49):
0

What is motor control?

Ability to maintain and change posture and movement

1

What 4 things give us the ability to maintain and change posture and movement?

1. Happens in fractions of seconds
2. largely a result of development and maturation of the neuromotor systems
3. nervous system directs what muscles to use, in what order and how quickly
4. sensory feedback is key

2

What is key when it comes to motor control?

sensory feedback

3

Motor ________ change over time so motor _________ must also change

abilities, solutions

4

What are the 3 Motor Control Theories?

1. Hierachic Theory
2. Systems Model
3. Nasher's Model

5

As the brain matures, it begins to control posture and movement previously dominated by the primitive reflexes. Initial random movements are followed by maintenance of posture (stability), movement within posture (controlled mobility), and movement from one posture to another (skill). What theory is this?

Hierarchic Theory

6

True/False: Postural control develops cephalocaudal?

True

7

What is postural control?

The ability to maintain alignment of the body and is maintained through righting, protective or equilibrium reactions.

8

What is righting reactions?

The ability to orient the head to keep eyes horizontal in relation to the ground.

9

What 2 things are associated with the righting reactions?

1. Optical righting reaction
2. Labyrinthine righting reaction

10

What righting reaction is cued by vision

Optical righting reaction

11

What righting reaction is cued by gravity?

Labyinthine righting reaction

12

Extremity movements that occur in response to rapid displacement of the body is?

Protective reactions

13

___________ are extended to prepare for fall

extremities

14

What is most advanced and last to develop, allows the body to adapt to slow changes in relation of center of gravity to the base of support?

Equilibrum reaction

15

______ rotates or bends back towards the base of support

trunk

16

During a protective reaction, what has to extend to prepare for a fall?

extremities

17

During an equilibrium reaction, what has to bend or rotate towards the base of support?

trunk

18

What theory states the brain and spinal centers work together with many systems of the body to develop motor control?

Systems Model

19

Systems Model
As body systems grow and mature the speed of nervous system responses _______ by producing different _______ responses.

increase, motor

20

What is the basic functional unit?

motor pattern (rolling, creeping, walking)

21

What is the relationship between posture and movement?

postural control

22

What is necessary to execute a motor plan?

proper postural positioning

23

What theory is based on sway strategies?

Nasher's Model

24

Nasher's Model has what 3 sway strategies?

1. Ankle
2. Hip
3. Stepping

25

What is the Ankle Strategy?

Movement at the ankle's maintains quiet standing on a firm surface

26

What is the hip strategy?

activated when BOS is narrower, muscles around the hip activate proximal to distal

27

What is stepping strategy?

if speed and strengh of balance disturbance is great enough, take a step

28

Without proper _______ __________, motor development can't proceed normally.

motor control

29

True/False:
Motor development can proceed normally without motor control?

False

30

Process that causes a permanent change in motor performance as a result of practice or expertise?

Motor learning

31

Many ________ motor patterns such as running and throwing are learned in ________

fundamental, childhood

32

What are the 3 phases of learning?

1. Cognitive
2. Associative
3. Autonomous

33

This phase requires a lot of new conscious thought with new tasks. Children or adults with cognitive or processing deficits have problems in this stage. What stage am I?

Cognitive Phase

34

Learning takes place through trial and error, sensory feed back is crucial and must practive in a variety of settings...what stage am I?

Associative Phase

35

Task is mastered, it can be conducted and carried out with less attention, what phase am I?

Autonomous Phase

36

True/False:

The more closely the practice enviornment resembles the actual environment, the skill will be done in, the better the transfer of learning?

True

37

What is Whole part training?

If parts are truly subunits of the task, then working on them individually does enhance learing of the whole task. If parts are not specific to the task, breaking into parts may not help in learning the task as a whole

38

True/False:

Parts not subunits of the task may not help learning the task as a whole?

True

39

_______ _________ is an essential part of motor development?

motor learning

40

What is the Lifespan Approach when it comes to motor development? 3 things.

1. Development can occur in positive direction, infant able to do more as they get older
2. Development can occur in negative direction, speed and accuracy of movement declines after maturity
3. Continuous process is not linear (ups and downs throughout lifespan)

41

What are the 2 Development Concepts?

1. Epigenesis
2. Directional

42

What is the Epigenesis Concept?

Develop from simple to complex
-generally develop gross motor before fine, but may be working on more that 1 task at a time at various stages of skill
-1 skill does not need to be perfect before starting the next, and some may be skipped

43

True/False:

During the Epigensis stage, one skill needs to be developed before another skill can begin.

False

44

What are the elements to Directional Concepts?

1. Cephalic to Caudal-head control develops before trunk UE before LE
2. Proximal to distal-stable base of trunk must develop before movement is superimposed
3. Mass to specific-simple movement to complex movement
4. Gross to fine-large muscle movement to smaller fine control

45

What control must develop before trunk with the Directional Concepts

head

46

Stable base of ______ must develop before movement is superimposed

trunk

47

______ movement to _______ movement

simple, complex

48

Large______ movement to smaller ______ control

muscle, fine