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1

Causes of Modernisation under Stalin

Economic Reasons
Ideological Reasons
Fear of War
Political Reasons

2

Causes of Modernisation under Stalin - Economic

- NEP failed to increase growth since 1927
- Agriculture: production of crops and livestock fell after 1926 leading to the Grain Procurement Crisis
- Industry; Output failed to increase

3

Causes of Modernisation under Stalin - Political

- NEP destroyed - Central Committee had to choose between Stalins and Bukharin's policies - choosing stalins confirmed him as sole leader of Russia

4

Causes of Modernisation under Stalin - Fear of War

- End of 1920's - feared war with Germany
- German industry more advanced
- Needed to modernise to enable Russia to fight

5

Causes of Modernisation under Stalin - Ideological

- Communists critical of Free market (Capitalist!)
- Stalin replaced free market with central planning (reflected party's long term ideological goals)
- Hope would convince peasants of benefits of communism
- Stalin believed NEP favoured peasants over working class. Communism = support workers and improve conditions

6

Stages of Collectivisation

1928 - Emergency Measures
- Grain Requisitioning and Rationing
1929 - Dekulakization
- Compulsory collectivisation
- Kulaks rounded up and exiled but Red Army/Secret Police
1929 - 25 Thousanders
- 27,000 volunteers to countryside to assist with dekulakization
1930 - Dizzy With Success
- Halt to compulsory collectivisation
- Blamed chaos on party members being 'dizzy with success'
1931 - Collectivisation restarts - slower pace
1941 - Collectivisation complete

7

Consequences of Collectivisation - Famine

Kulaks destroyed crops and livestock (1929-1933 18m destroyed)
Gov. set unrealistic targets for collective farms (failure to meet = all grain taken)
More grain exported despite reduced production - (0.03m tonnes in 1928, 5m tonnes 1931)

10m died, especially in Ukraine where Stalin refused to send any grain

8

Rural Effects of Collectivisation

Dekulakisation = 10m exiles, 10% of males in one village
Harvest of 1933 10m tonnes less than 1926
1932 - Machine ractor Stations supplied 75,000 tractors which made up for lack of horses

9

Urban Effects of Collectivisation

Standard of living fell sharply
- Bread rationing 1932 - protein consumed by workers fell by 66%
Famine in countryside = more people!
- pop. of cities trebled 1930-1940

10

Was collectivisation successful?

- Long Term = Yes, more efficient
- Short Term = Famine etc.

11

First Five Year Plan - When, aims?

1928 - 1932
Focus = Heavy Industry
- Allow for future develop,ent
- Most workers were ex-peasants - not skilled or experienced


12

Successes of First Five Year Plan

- Production exceeded that under NEP (Oil 1928-32 11m-21m tonnes
- Economy grew 14%/year
- Social
- Urban pop. trebled during 1930's
- 150,000 Red specialists replaced those under NEP
- Workers - courses at Uni - gov. funding

13

Failures of First Year Plan

- Quality of products fell due to pressure to produce high standards
- Living Standards fell, 7 days working week and longer hours
- Consumer goods source
- Lateness, striking and breaking equipment criminalised
- MAGNITOGORSK. no heating/sanitation. huts etc.
- Black market thrived due to scarcity of consumer goods
- Slave labour. Eg. Magnitogorsk,built using 40,000 prisoners

14

Second Five Year Plan - when, aims?

1933-1938

- Stressed electrification, transport, new industries and consumer goods

- Kirov group pressured Stalin to priorities living standard and consumer goods
- 1st plan = lots of raw materials, no way to transport
- 1st plan = workers able to perform more complex tasks

3GOOD YEARS 1933 - 36 = CONSUMER GOOD AVALIABLE!

REARMAMENT
- change in priorities in 1936
- Germany rearming

Kirov assassinated 1934

15

Second Five Year Plan - Successes

- Transport - Moscow metro open 1935
- Volga Canal complte 1937
- Consumer goods - Bread rationing end 1934
- 1933 - 37 consumer goods doubled
- Labour Productivity = Stakhanovite movement
- Steel output x3, coal x2
-Rearmament - 4% of GDP 1933, 17% 1937

16

Second Five Year Plan - Failures

- New Housing lacked running water/sanitations
- 650,000 in Moscow no access to Bathhouse
-Poor diet
- Clothing hard to find
- Inequalities! - Top communists had luxurious lifestyles on public money. Alexei Stakhanovite = 1 month wage in a day, holiday, apartment, telephone
Quality issues same as 1st plan

17

Third Five Year Plan - When and aims?

1938-1941
Focus continued on heavy industry and rearmament.
Hampered by chaos of great Terror

18

Successes of Third 5 Year Plan

REARMAMENT
- investement doubled 1938-1940
- 1939, 9 aircraft factories constructed
H. INDUSTRY
- Coal production 128m - 166m tonnes 1937-40
DISCIPLINE
- Internal passports to stop moving to find better paid jobs

19

Failures of Third 5 year plan

ADMINISTRATION
- Purges removed most expereinced planners
- Purges = Gosplan never pubished complete version = confusion in industry

H.INDUSTRY
- Purges = Stagnated production - remained at 18m tonnes/year - same as 2nd plan

CONSUMER GOODS
- Rationing introduced
- Impossible to buy most consumer goods eg. fridges = hard to store food
- 1941 - 1 shop per 470 people

20

What was the Great Retreat

Return to traditional values in 1930's after liberalisation in the 1920's

21

The Great Retreat: Family

Propaganda emphasised impotance of family
- Working class are 'one big family', Stalin as father
- Propaganda demonised men who cheated/neglected family

22

The Great Retreat: Education

KOSMOL
SCHOOL
TEACHERS

23

The Great Retreat: Education
- Kosmol

1935 - Soviet youth organisation
Kosmolsakia Pravda - Youth Newspaper
Abstinence

24

The Great Retreat: Education
- School

1935 - Stalin introduced new curriculum
1920's education emphasised freedom of thought, 1930's = tradition, numeracy, literacy
AIM= to produce disciplined and educated workers
10% of time on history - manipulated - communists described as 'liberators', russia before the rev was 'prison on the peoples'

25

The Great Retreat: Education
- Teachers

Influenced by Stakhanovite movement - set audacious targets + rewarded for meeting them

-Federovna Leonova pledged all students get excellent grades, success celebrated in soviet media

26

The Great Retreat: Women
- Work

WORK.
- 1928 - 3m in industry, 1940, 13m - 41% of workers = women
- No of women in education doubled
- 1945 - 80% of collective farm workers = women
- Stakhanovites
- Earned 40% less than men on avg.

27

The Great Retreat: Women
- Home

Expected to resign from jobs when married
Expected to spend 5x more time on domestic chores than men

28

The Great Retreat: Women
- Children

1936 - Homosexuality and Adultery banned
Contraception + Abortion banned
7 children = 200 roubles per year for 5 years
- 4000 women applied in 1st month

29

The Great Retreat: Women
- Marriage and Divorce

Stalin emphasised importance of marriage
Wedding rings banned in 1928 , reintroduced 1936
men with affairs named in soviet media

divorce expensive + complex
- 1st divorce = 1 weeks wage (50 roubles)
- 3rd Diborce = 300 roubles

Men who left their families expected to contribute 60% of their wages as child support

1937 - 91% men and 82% of women in their 30's married