2.29 Basal Ganglia Flashcards Preview

7303 Neuroanatomy > 2.29 Basal Ganglia > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.29 Basal Ganglia Deck (26):
1

Why are basal ganglia not actually ganglia?

- not in the CNS
- now called basal nuclei

2

What are basal ganglia overall?

functional loops that are connected with the pyramidal tracts (motor tracts)

3

What can damage to basal ganglia cause?

abnormal behavior and movement

4

basal ganglia affect this system

limbic (emotion, cognition)

5

damage to caudate

get problems with decision making

6

head of caudate

- helps take all sensory input in to make appropriate decisions
- integrates surroundings and inputs

7

premotor cortex (function)

- aka prefrontal cortex
- similar functions for motor planning to head of caudate

8

How do the head of caudate and premotor cortex work?

work together

9

reading social cues requires

combo of input from basal ganglia and amygdala

10

striatum

caudate + putamen

11

lentiform nucleus

putamen + globus pallidus

12

names of substantia nigra parts

2 separate structures

SNpc (pars compacta)
SNpr (pars reticularis)

13

Which part of the substantia nigra is pigmented?

SNpc

14

Where does pigment of substantia nigra come from?

pigment comes from neuromelanin
- expressed in dopaminergic (emotion/movement) and cholinergic (memory formation)cells in the brain

15

function of melanin/neuromelanin

neutralizes free radicals

16

When is neuromelanin expressed most?

- when you're very young and very old
- provides protection for cells

17

function of SNpc

widespread modulation of BG and movement/emotion

18

SNpr

- major BG output nucleus
- functionally different from SNpc
- modulation

19

SN

substantia nigra

20

STN

subthalamic nucleus

21

blood supply to SN and STN

perforating branches of
- posterior cerebral
- posterior communicating

22

blood supply to striatum

- perforating branches of middle cerebral artery (MCA)
- aka lenticulostriate arteries

23

blood supply to globus pallidus

anterior choroidal artery (branches off of the carotid artery)

24

blood supply to caudate

branches of anterior cerebral (medial striate)

25

What type of movement do the basal ganglia influence?

influence voluntary movement

26

How do basal ganglia influence voluntary movement (overall)?

- senses are integrated
- prefrontal cortex and head of caudate make decisions on motor output given the circumstances
- integrate emotions, stress level, what's going on around you, etc.