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Flashcards in 2.3 Deck (26):
1

What is carbohydrates role in the body?

Energy source
Energy store
Cell markers (e.g. glycoproteins)

2

What is an examples of an energy source in animals?

Glucose (for respiration)

3

What is an example of an energy store in animals?

Glycogen

4

What is an example of an energy store in plants?

Starch

5

List monosaccharides

Glucose
Galactose
Fructose

6

List properties of monosaccharides

Small
Soluble
Sweet tasting

7

Glucose + fructose = ?

Sucrose

8

Glucose + galactose = ?

Lactose

9

Glucose + glucose = ?

Maltose

10

What type of reaction joins monosaccharides together?

Condensation

11

What bond is formed between the monosaccharides?

Covalent, glycosidic

12

What reaction breaks disaccharides into monosaccharides?

Hydrolysis

13

List disaccharides

Lactose
Sucrose
Maltose

14

What is sucrose?

Disaccharide that transports carbohydrates in phloem

15

What enzyme digests lactose?

Lactase

16

What are polysaccharides?

Polymers formed by condensation reactions joining monosaccharides together, held by glycosidic bonds

17

Give examples of polysaccharides

Glycogen
Starch

18

Why is glycogen an ideal storage molecule?

Insoluble (doesn't affect the water potential of cells)
Branched (many terminal end points where glucose can be released quickly)

19

Describe the structure of glycogen

Made from glucose
1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds

20

Describe the structure of starch

Made from glucose
1-4 glycosidic bonds

21

What are the 2 forms of starch?

Amylose
Amylopectin

22

Why is starch useful for an energy storage compound?

Insoluble because too large

23

What is the shape of amylose?

Linear (1-4 bonds only)
Compact

24

Is amylose soluble in water?

No

25

What is the structure of amylopectin?

Branched (1-4, 1-6 bonds)
Less compact

26

Is amylopectin soluble in water?

Yes