Flashcards in 23: The Emergence of Industrial Society on the West, 1750-1914 Deck (33):
age of revolution;;
Period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848.
Huge growth in population in western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50%, England and Prussia 100%.
Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full- or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution.
Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of the United States of America.
Revolution in France between 1789 and 1800; resulted in overthrow of Bourbon monarchy and old regimes; ended with establishment of French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
Bourbon monarch of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Adopted during the liberal phase of the French Revolution; stated the fundamental equality of all French citizens; later became a political source for other liberal movements.
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolutions known as the reign of terror.
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe; often allied with other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
Rose within the French Revolution; eventually become general; led a coup that ended the French Revolution; established French Empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars to restore stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes.
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; opposed revolutionary goals; advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of church.
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of properties people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; advocated broader voting rights than liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower classes.
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840s; demand for reform beyond the Reform Bill of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed.
French scientist who discovered relationship between germs and disease in 19th century, leading to better sanitation.
American Civil War
Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the US and reunification of North and South.
Political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo.
Issues relating to repressed classes in western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man.
German socialist who blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian government.
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.
mass leisure culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
Biologist who developed theory of evolution of species; argues that all living species evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
Developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; after 1900 issued theory of relativity.
Viennese physician who developed theories of the working of the human subconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses,
Artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Alliance among Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 20th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Movements to create independent nations within he Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.