Flashcards in 25 Alternative approaches to individual psychopathology Deck (28):
What was the criticism of the DSM-5 made by the British Psychological Society?
It disregards social and environmental factors. By regarding all problems as intrapsychic, it leaves the individual out of context.
What was the criticism of the DSM-5 made by the National Institute of Mental Health?
It's not biological enough. Diagnoses should be linked to neurological functioning.
What does the bio-psycho-social model of mental illness risk becoming?
A bio-bio-bio model that relegates human despair to physiological functioning.
What is a risk of giving a diagnoses to children or adolescents?
They may self-label, referring to their illness as an organic part of themselves. E.g. I am ADHD, Asperger's
Describe a successful multisystemic therapy?
Henggeller's (2010) Multisystemic Therapy for juvenile offenders. It involves the family and the community, addressing all environmental systems that impact chronic and violent juvenile offenders.
When was homosexuality removed from the DSM as a disorder?
In DSM-III in 1980.
What was part 1 of the experiment that formed the basis of Rosenhan's 'On Being Sane in Insane Places' (1973)?
- Healthy associates report to psychiatric hospitals claiming to hear voices. After admission, they ceased all symptoms.
- Average time spent in hospital was 19 days.
- All were forced to admit they had a mental illness and forced to take antipsychotic drugs as a condition of their release.
- All but one diagnosed with schizophrenia 'in remission'
What was part 2 of the experiment that formed the basis of Rosenhan's 'On Being Sane in Insane Places' (1973)?
- An offended hospital administration challenged Rosenhan to send pseudopatients to its facility. Rosenhan agreed.
- In the following weeks staff identified 41 of 193 as potential pseudopatients. 19 were suspected by at least 1 psychiatrist and 1 other staff member.
- No pseudopatients had been sent.
What changes were suggested in the aftermath of the 'On Being Sane in Insane Places' (1973) experiment?
Psychiatric labels and incarceration might not be a solution. In fact, the facilities themselves might create mental illness. Switch to community health facilities.
What two types of therapeutic knowledge does Epston (1999) identify?
1. Outsider (global) knowledge – used by practitioners
2. Insider (local) knowledge – based on the experience of people living with and having overcome problems
What is the recovery movement?
Movements such as AA, run by non-professionals relying primarily on insider knowledge. Sharing stories etc.
What's the difference between the consumer/survivor approach to mental illness and the medical model?
Medical model focuses on mental health problems as illnesses – diagnosis of pathology, treatment, symptom resolution and a return to former state of functioning.
Recovery paradigm focuses on the person, not simply the symptoms, and emphasises empowerment and self-management across the lifespan. Idea that mental illness and recovery can transform you. Don't have to get rid of symptoms (e.g., hearing voices).
What did Rhodes report about having families with AN sufferer talk to survivor family pre-treatment?
Increased efficacy of treatment by 2%.
Does the recovery movement advocate giving up medication?
No, says Roberts and Wolfson (2004).
What are Arthur W. Frank's 3 typologies of illness narrative?
1. Restitution – illness is transitory. Expect reversion to previous functioning.
2. Chaos – despair, lack of control, overwhelmed by illness.
3. Quest – illness accepted and incorporated as part of life story.
What are Arthur W. Frank's 3 kinds of Quest illness narrative?
1. Quest memoir – accept illness stoically. No insight gained from experience.
2. Quest manifesto – demands for social reform or action. Insight gained.
3. Quest automythology – change of character, rebirth, transformation
What is Kenneth Gergen's idea of the 'relational self' (2009)?
There is no such thing as an autonomous, isolated self. What is commonly viewed as the individual subject is the common intersection of multiple relationships. (Relational Being)
What is Gergen's riff on Descartes' cogito?
I am linked therefore I am.
What is the Hearing Voices movement?
A consumer/recovery movement for psychotics, which normalises hearing voices, interpreting them as a manifestation of solvable emotional problems.
What are the three phases of recovery in the Hearing Voices movement suggested by Romme and Escher (1993)?
1. Startling – shock, trying to push the voices away
2. Organisation – employing strategies to deal with the voices, placing boundaries...
3. Stabilisation – integrating the voices into life, recognise them as 'part of me'
How is anti-psychotic medication regarded in the Hearing Voices movement?
As a form of repression – silencing the voices, rather than making sense of them. Individuals should be taught to lean in to the voices rather than lean away.
What two recovery typologies were revealed by Dejager, Rhodes et al. (2014)?
After a period of despair/exhaustion...
1) turning toward/empowerment: normalising voices, integration into daily life, transformation of identity
2) turning away/protective hibernation: harnessing all available resources to survive the experience, with importance of medication emphasised.
Why is it important for voice hearers to understand where the voices come from?
Unless meaning is attributed to voices, hard to establish relationship with them and feel in control.
What do the voices of psychotics express, according to Rhodes?
Voices express what the voice hearers are feeling or thinking – e.g. fear, aggression. The feelings are important, not the voices.
What is Open Dialogue or Network Therapy for psychosis? (Seikkula, 2006)
Upon first presentation of psychosis, intensive engagement with the client and whole community. Hold meetings where focus on polyphonic dialogue, including the heard voices of the psychotic.
Why is Conduct Disorder a dodgy diagnosis?
It's just a description of behaviour (it doesn't suggest any internal dysfunction).
How is Judith Herman's beef with Borderline Personality Disorder, and how should it be more accurately named?
BPD sufferers are people whose trust has been so broken – through various kinds of trauma – that they don’t feel safe in relationships. Judith Herman claims Complex PTSD is a more valid description.