25: The Consolidation of Latin America Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 25: The Consolidation of Latin America Deck (29):


Leader of slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791 that led to creation of independent republic of Hati in 1804.


Hidalgo, Father Miguel de

Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed.


Iturbide, Augustin de

Conservative Creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; combined forces entered Mexico City in 1821; later proclaimed emperor of Mexico until its collapse in 1824.


Bolivar, Simon

Creole military officer in northern South America; won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of independent state of Gran Colombia.


Gran Colombia

Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolivar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.


de San Martin, Jose

A leader of the struggle for independence in southern South America. Born in Argentina, he served in the Spanish army but joined in the movement for independence and led the revolutionary army that crossed the Andes and helped to liberate Chile in 1817-18, later collaborating with Simon Bolivar in the liberation of Peru. As "protector of Peru" he instituted a number of liberal reforms. For political reasons he went into exile in Europe in 1823.


Joao VI

Portuguese monarch who established seat of government in Brazil from 1808 to 1820 as a result of Napoleonic invasion of Iberian peninsula; made Brazil seat of empire with capital at Rio de Janeiro.


Pedro I

Son and successor of Joao IV in Brazil; aided in the declaration id Brazilian independence from Portugal in 18222; became constitutional emperor of Brazil.


Santa Anna, Andres

Mestizo general who established union of independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.



Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national politics; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.



Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments who broad powers; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives.



Latin American politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional governments rather than centralized national administrations; often supported by politicians who described themselves as liberals.


Rosas, Juan Manuel de

Strongman leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.


Santa Anna, General Antonio Lopez de

Seized power in Mexico after collapse of empire of Mexico in 1824; after brief reign of liberals, seized power in 1835 as caudillo; defeated by United States in Mexican-American War in 1848; unseated by liberal rebellion in 1854.



Bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from trade permitted end to American Indian tribute and abolition of slavery.



French philosophy based on observation and scientific approach to problems of society; adopted by many Latin American liberals in the aftermath of independence.


Comte, Auguste

French philosopher; founder of positivism, a philosophy that stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.


manifest destiny

Belief of the government of the United States that it was destined to rule the continent from coast to coast; led to annexation of Texas and Mexican-American War.


Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildalgo

Agreement that ended the Mexican-American War; provided for loss of Texas and California to the US; left legacy of distrust of the US in Latin America.


Mexican-American War

Fought between Mexico and the US from 1846-1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces, loss of about one half of Mexico's national territory to the US.


Juarez, Benito

Indian governor of state of Oaxaca in Mexico; leader of liberal rebellion against Santa Anna; liberal government defeated by French intervention under Emperor Napoleon III of France and establishment of Mexican Empire under Maximilian; restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872.


Reforma, La

The liberal rebellion of Benito Juarez against the forces of Santa Anna.


Hapsburg, Maximilian von

Proclaimed Emperor Maximilian of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juarez in 1867.


Argentine Republic

Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862; result of compromise between centralists and federalists.


Sarmiento, Domingo F.

Liberal politician and president of Argentine Republic from 1868 to 1874; author of ""Facundo"", a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade, launched internal reforms in education and transportation.



Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860; created major export commodity for Brazilian trade; led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.



Advisors of government of Porfirio Diaz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; permitted Mexican government to project image of modernization.


Spanish-American War

War fought between Spain and the US beginning in 1898; centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico; permitted American intervention in Caribbean, annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines.


Panama Canal

An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from US support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provided short route between Atlantic and Pacific oceans; completed 1914.

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