26. Electrolyte disturbances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 26. Electrolyte disturbances Deck (25):
1

concentration of sodium , potassium, chloride, biocarbonate, magnesium, calcium , phosphorus

1. Na+ --> 136-145 mEq/L
2, Cl - --> 95-105 mEq/L
3. K+ ---> 3.5-5 mEq/L
4. HCO3- --> 22-28 mEq/L
5. Mg 2+ --> 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
6. Ca2+ --> 8.4-1.2 mg/dL
7. Pi --> 3-4.5 mg/dL

2

high Na+ concentration - clinical manifestation

1. irrtitability
2. stupor
3. coma

3

low Na+ concentration - clinical manifestation

1. nausea
2. malaise
3. stupor
4. coma
5. seizures

4

high K+ concentration - clinical manifestation

1. wide QRS and peaked T waves on ECG
2. Arrhythmias
3. muscle weakness

5

low K+ concentration - clinical manifestation

1. U waves and flattened T waves on ECG
2. Arrhythmias
3. muscle cramps
4. spasms
5. weakness

6

high Ca2+ concentration - clinical manifestations

1. renal stones
2. bone pain
3. abdominal pain and constipation
4. urinary frequency
5. anxiety, altered mental status
NOT NECESSARILY CALCIURIA

7

Low Ca2+ concentration - clinical manifestations

1. Tetany
2. seizures
3. Prolonged QT
4. twiching ( Chvostek sign)
5. Spasm ( Trusseau sign)

8

high Mg2+ concentration - clinical manifestations

1. low deep tendon reflexes
2. lethargy
3. bradycardia
4. hypotension
5. cardiac arrest
6. Hypocalcemia

9

low Mg2+ concentration - clinical manifestations

1. Tetany
2. torsades de pointes
3. hypokalemia

10

high Po4- concentration - clinical manifestations

1. Renal stones
2. metastatic calcifications
3. Hypocalcemia

11

low Po4- concentration - clinical manifestations

1. Bone loss
2. osteomalacia ( adults )
3. rickets ( children)

12

stupor vs coma according to definition

stupor : unresponsiceness from which a person can be aroused only by vigorous, physical stimulation
Coma : uresponsiveness from which a person cannot be aroused

13

Electrolyte disturbances - ECH ?

1. U waves and flattened T waves in low K+
2. wide QRS and peaked T waves in gih K+
3. torsades de pointes in low Mg2+
4. QT prolongation in low Ca2+
5. Bradycardia/ cardiac arrest in high Mg2+

14

Renin- secreting tumor - BP , renin, Aldosrerone levels

BP: increased
renin: Increased
aldosterone : increased

15

Primary hyperaldosteronism ( Conn syndrome ) - BP, renin,
Aldosterone levels

BP: increased
renin: decreased
aldosterone : increased

16

SIADH - BP, renin , aldosterone - levels

BP: increased
renin: decreased
aldosterone :decreased

17

Liddle syndrome - BP, renin , aldosterone - levels

BP: increased
renin: decreased
aldosterone :decreased

18

Bartter syndrome - BP, renin , aldosterone - levels

BP: not affected
renin: Increased
aldosterone : increased

19

Gitelman syndrome - BP, renin , aldosterone - levels

BP: not affected
renin: Increased
aldosterone : increased

20

Bartter syndrome vs Gitelman syndrome according serum Mg 2+ levels

Barrter -->low ( but more characteristic in Gitelman )
Gilteman --> decreased

21

Bartter syndrome vs Gitelman syndrome according Ca2+ levels

Barter --> high
Gilteman --> low

22

angiotensin effect on heart rate

in addition to its pressor effect, ATII also affets baroreceptor

23

hypecalcemia causes frequent urination - mechanism

Excess calcium --> kidneys have to work harder to filter it out --> excessive thirst and frequent urination

24

other electrical disturbances caused by Mg 2+ level disturbances

low Mg --> hypokalemia
high Mg --> hypocalcemia

25

Causes of hypomagnesemia

1. diarrhea
2. aminoglycosides
3. diuretics
4. alcohol abuse

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