2.6.2 Social psychology & Milgram Flashcards Preview

A Level Psychology > 2.6.2 Social psychology & Milgram > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.6.2 Social psychology & Milgram Deck (37):
1

what are social psychologists interested in?

social behaviour

2

give examples of research methods social psychologists use:

field experiments
self report
content analysis
controlled observations

3

when was milgrams research carried out?

1963

4

what was the aim of milgrams research?

to see how far people would go in obeying an instruction even when it involved harming another person

5

how was the sample of milgrams study selected?

self/volunteer - responded to newspaper ads

6

who were the participants?

40 males
aged 20 - 50
paid $4.50

7

who else were involved in the experiment?

learner (actor)
experimenter (actor)

8

where was the research carried out?

2 rooms at Yale
1. had the learner and electric chair
2. had teacher & experimenter with a shock generator

9

what did the procedure involve?

teacher asking learner to recall words, then shocked them when they got it wrong - increasing the voltage of the shock with each wrong answer

10

what did milgram find: how many participants went to 450v?

65% or two thirds

11

what voltage did all participants go to?

300v

12

conclusions: Ordinary people are likely to....

....follow orders given by authority figure even to the extent of killing

13

Conclusions: People obey orders from authority figure if.....

....they recognise that authority as being morally right

14

what does internal validity refer to?

whether the research actually measures what it claims to measure

15

what was an internal validity strength of milgrams procedure?

well standardised - everyone had the same experience

16

what was an internal validity strength of how obedience was operationalized?

accurately operationalized
by the voltage level the participants would give

17

how did orne and Holland argue milgram's research lacked internal validity?

participants must have realised the set up was fake - the experimenter didn't check on the learner who was screaming in pain

18

what did perry argue about the internal validity of milgram's study?

participants knew they weren't hurting anyone based upon a following questionnaire in which many said they were suspicious

19

what is an argument against orne & Holland and Perry to say that milgrams study did have internal validity?

evidence came after debrief - they can fake answers but participants couldn't fake reactions such as tears and panic attacks

20

what were some of the subjects suspicions?

learners cries appeared to be coming from a speaker
check looked worn - used over and over
experimenters lack of concern

21

what did post research interview show about the percentage of participants who believed they were giving real shocks?

75% believed they were giving real shocks

22

what is external validity?

can the findings be applied to outside the research setting?

23

why did milgrams study lack ecological validity? (external validity)

artificial test - controlled
didn't reflect obedience in everyday world

24

why does milgram's study lack population validity?

findings only apply to male americans

25

what is mundane realism? was milgrams experiment high or low in it? (external validity)

the extent to which a situation reflects real life
LOW

26

what is experimental realism? was milgrams experiment high or low in it? (external validity)

so engrossed in research study they forget its artificial and actually show real behaviour
HIGH

27

what have replications of milgrams experiment found? (external validity strength)

high levels of obedience across sex & nationality

28

ethics: why did milgram's study not break ethical guidelines?

they didn't exist at the time

29

ethics: how were milgram's participants deceived?

told the aim was punishment and learning when it was obedience
actors faking reactions
fake shocks

30

why mighty milgram have argued deception was necessary?

to avoid demand characteristics

31

why did milgram's study have a lack of full informed consent?

aim was lied about
fake shocks
participants didn't have full knowledge couldn't give full consent

32

how did milgram overcome the issue of full informed consent?

retro active consent - asked participants after if they would consent once they understood the research
presumptive consent - asking people on street

33

how were participants not protected from harm?

distressed thinking they were harming the learner
panic attacks
have to live with the knowledge they could kill someone

34

how did milgram overcome the issue of not protecting participants from harm?

thorough debrief
counselling
asked how they felt about participating - 80% said they were glad and thought more research should be done

35

who was the learner?

47 year old irish American (actor)

36

who was the experimenter and what did he say to the teacher if they tried to stop?

31 year old actor
"please continue" "you must go on"

37

what were participants told the aim of the experiment was?

investigating learning and punishment

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