Flashcards in 2.6.2 Social psychology & Milgram Deck (37):
what are social psychologists interested in?
give examples of research methods social psychologists use:
when was milgrams research carried out?
what was the aim of milgrams research?
to see how far people would go in obeying an instruction even when it involved harming another person
how was the sample of milgrams study selected?
self/volunteer - responded to newspaper ads
who were the participants?
aged 20 - 50
who else were involved in the experiment?
where was the research carried out?
2 rooms at Yale
1. had the learner and electric chair
2. had teacher & experimenter with a shock generator
what did the procedure involve?
teacher asking learner to recall words, then shocked them when they got it wrong - increasing the voltage of the shock with each wrong answer
what did milgram find: how many participants went to 450v?
65% or two thirds
what voltage did all participants go to?
conclusions: Ordinary people are likely to....
....follow orders given by authority figure even to the extent of killing
Conclusions: People obey orders from authority figure if.....
....they recognise that authority as being morally right
what does internal validity refer to?
whether the research actually measures what it claims to measure
what was an internal validity strength of milgrams procedure?
well standardised - everyone had the same experience
what was an internal validity strength of how obedience was operationalized?
by the voltage level the participants would give
how did orne and Holland argue milgram's research lacked internal validity?
participants must have realised the set up was fake - the experimenter didn't check on the learner who was screaming in pain
what did perry argue about the internal validity of milgram's study?
participants knew they weren't hurting anyone based upon a following questionnaire in which many said they were suspicious
what is an argument against orne & Holland and Perry to say that milgrams study did have internal validity?
evidence came after debrief - they can fake answers but participants couldn't fake reactions such as tears and panic attacks
what were some of the subjects suspicions?
learners cries appeared to be coming from a speaker
check looked worn - used over and over
experimenters lack of concern
what did post research interview show about the percentage of participants who believed they were giving real shocks?
75% believed they were giving real shocks
what is external validity?
can the findings be applied to outside the research setting?
why did milgrams study lack ecological validity? (external validity)
artificial test - controlled
didn't reflect obedience in everyday world
why does milgram's study lack population validity?
findings only apply to male americans
what is mundane realism? was milgrams experiment high or low in it? (external validity)
the extent to which a situation reflects real life
what is experimental realism? was milgrams experiment high or low in it? (external validity)
so engrossed in research study they forget its artificial and actually show real behaviour
what have replications of milgrams experiment found? (external validity strength)
high levels of obedience across sex & nationality
ethics: why did milgram's study not break ethical guidelines?
they didn't exist at the time
ethics: how were milgram's participants deceived?
told the aim was punishment and learning when it was obedience
actors faking reactions
why mighty milgram have argued deception was necessary?
to avoid demand characteristics
why did milgram's study have a lack of full informed consent?
aim was lied about
participants didn't have full knowledge couldn't give full consent
how did milgram overcome the issue of full informed consent?
retro active consent - asked participants after if they would consent once they understood the research
presumptive consent - asking people on street
how were participants not protected from harm?
distressed thinking they were harming the learner
have to live with the knowledge they could kill someone
how did milgram overcome the issue of not protecting participants from harm?
asked how they felt about participating - 80% said they were glad and thought more research should be done
who was the learner?
47 year old irish American (actor)
who was the experimenter and what did he say to the teacher if they tried to stop?
31 year old actor
"please continue" "you must go on"