2.7: The Red Eye Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.7: The Red Eye Deck (64)
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What is the most common cause of red eye?



Name some common causes of red eye?

Conjunctivitis Scleritis Keratitis Uveitis Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma


What are two rarer (but very important) causes of red eye?

Subconjunctival Haemorrhage Orbital Disease (Eg: Cellulitis)


What is conjunctivitis?

Inflammation of the conjunctiva


What is keratitis?

Inflammation of the cornea


What is uveitis?

Inflammation of the uvea Uvea is composed of iris, ciliary body and choroid


Describe subconjunctival haemorrhage? Symptoms? Pain? Who does this affect? Treatment?

This is bleeding under the conjunctiva Asymptomatic Painless Usually in elderly patients (weaker vessels) who sneeze/cough/strain Goes away by itself


Describe orbital cellulitis? How does this occur? Signs and symptoms? Who does this affect? Treatment?

Inflammation of the soft tissues around the eye Often following sinus infection Causes swelling, redness, proptosis of eye Loss of vision Common in children Can be sight threatening Needs IV antibiotics and admission


What are the ocular defences?

Lids (Blink to close eyes) Tears Conjunctiva


Which eyelid is more important?

Upper Eyelid


Describe what can happen when lid disease causes the bottom eyelid to be pulled down constantly?

Causes dry and exposed eye Can lead to corneal ulcer


Describe the function/importance of tears?

Flows across eye to keep it lubricated Contains mucous to trap bugs Contains lysozyme which is antibacterial Contains immunoglobulin - IgG, IgA Complement is present


Where are tears produced?

Lacrimal Gland


Describe the examination of the front of the eye?

Facial Appearance Lids Conjunctiva Cornea Iris Pupil


What is Blepharitis? Types?

This is inflammation of the eyelids and eyelashes Divided into anterior and posterior (Anterior = Eyelashes, Posterior = Glands on eyelid)


Describe Anterior Blepharitis? Signs?

This can be sebhorreic (scales on the eyelashes) or staphylococcal (staph infection on the lash follicle) Causes a very red lid margin Staphylococcal may cause a sty


What is a sty?

Acute infection of a follicle Causes a yellow head, filled with pus Goes away after a few days


Describe posterior blepharitis? Signs?

This is caused by Meibomian gland dysfunction Lid and lashes are unaffected Dried secretion at meibomian gland opening called a Chalazion


What is a chalazion?

This is a small bump (cyst) caused by blocked meibomian gland May be painful or annoying but rarely serious


Which group of people are commonly affected by posterior blepharitis?

Those with acne rosacea


Treatment for blepharitis?

Hygiene - Bathing and hot compress Supplementary Tear Drops Oral Doxycycline


What are the two types of conjunctivitis?

Infective Non-Infective


Describe infective conjunctivitis?

Can be viral, bacterial or chlamydial


Describe viral conjunctivitis?

Most likely caused by adenovirus Usually follows a preceding upper respiratory tract infection


Describe chlamydial conjunctivitis?

This is conjunctivitis caused by chlaymdia trachomatis Commonly seen in the young Can come from genital infection


If you see chronic conjunctivitis in a young, sexually active person, what should you suspect?

Chlamydial Conjunctivitis


Describe acute bacterial conjunctivitis? Signs? Treatment? Organisms?

This is very common Causes a red sticky eye (due to discharge) Is self limiting and will clear up in 14 days without antibiotics Chloramphenicol drops can be used Organisms: - Staph Aureus - Strep Pneumoniae - Haemophilus Influenzae


Describe the signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis?

Red Eye Discharge Foreign Body Sensation Papillae or Follicles Subconjunctival Haemorrhage Oedema (Chemosis) Pre-aurical glands tender (in viral)


What is chemosis?

This is oedema of the conjunctiva


Describe papillae and follicles? - When are they seen (Which type of conjunctivitis) - Appearance

Papillae - seen in allergic and bacterial conjunctivitis Follicles - Seen in viral and chlamydial Papillae - Cone shaped elevations, red in the middle Follicles - Grains of rice