28: Antihistamines Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 28: Antihistamines Deck (19):
1

first generation antihistamines with marked potential for producing sedation

-brompheniramine
-chlorpheniramine
-chemastine
-cyproheptadine
-diphenhydramine
-doxylamine
-hydroxyzine
-promethazine

2

first generation antihistamines used to treat motion sickness

-cyclizine
-diphehydramine
-dimenhydrinate
-hydroxyxinr
-meclizine
-promethazine

3

second generation antihistamines with weak potential for producing sedation

-acrivastine
-cetirizine
-levocetrizine

4

second generation antihistamines that are non-sedating

-desloratadine
-fexofenadine
-loratadine

5

histamine is a chemical messenger found in high concentrations in:

mast cells, basophils, and at CNS neurons

6

histamine is unevenly distributes and have high amounts in:

lung, skin, and GI tract

7

histamine's cellular responses include

-allergic and inflammatory rxns
-gastric acid secretion
-neurotransmission in parts of the brain

8

which histamine receptors are current targets of drugs

H1 and H2

9

the general term antihistamine refers to the classic:

H1 receptor blockers which block the receptor-mediated response of target tissue but does not influence the formation or release of histamine and are more effective at preventing symptoms rather than reversing them

10

pros/cons of 1st gen antihistamines

pros: effective, inexpensive
cons: cause sedation (CNS effects), and interact w/other receptors causing adverse effects

11

4 examples of 1st gen antihistamines

-diphenhydramine (benadryl)
-dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
-chlorpheniramine (Chlor-trimeton)
-meclizine (Bonine)

12

what is different about 2nd gen antihistamines

-specific for peripheral H1 receptors
-cause less sedation (does not penetrate CNS)

13

3 examples of 2nd gen (non-sedating)

-loratadine (Claratin, Alavert)
-desloratadine (Clarinex)
-Fexodenadine (Allegra)

14

2 examples of 2nd gen (less-sedating)

-cetrizine (Zyrtec)
-levocetririzine (Xyzal)

15

using antihistamines for motion sickness and nausea seems to be from an antiemetic action which is due to

blockade of central H1 and M1 muscarinic receptors

16

1st gen have low specificity, meaning they block what receptors

muscarinic cholinergic, a-adrenergic, serotonin in addition to histamine receptors

17

disease related concerns for use of 1st gen antihistamines

-increased IOP, or angle-closure glaucoma
-prostatic hyperplasia, bladder neck obstruction, or GU obstruction
-pyloric or duodenal obstruction

18

ophthalmic adverse effects in 1st gen systemic sedating

-blurred vision and diplopia

19

systemic sedating antihistamines are contraindicated in:

-narrow angle glaucoma
-BPH
-patient's with peptic ulcer disease
-patient's with bladder obstruction (urinary obstruction)