28: Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order Flashcards Preview

AP World History > 28: Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order > Flashcards

Flashcards in 28: Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order Deck (38):

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo set in motion the events that started World War



Administrative center of the Bosnian province of Austrian Empire; assassination there of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 started World War I.


Western Front

Front established in World War I; generally along line from Belgium to Switzerland; featured trench warfare and horrendous casualties for all sides in the conflict.


Nicholas II

Tsar of Russia 1894-1917; forcefully suppressed political opposition and resisted constitutional government; deposed by revolution in 1917.



Peninsula south of Istanbul; site of decisive 1915 Turkish victory over Australian and New Zealand forces under British command during World War I.


Armenian Genocide

Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.


Eastern Front

Most mobile of the fronts established during WWI; after early successes, military defeats led to downfall of the tsarist government in Russia.


Adolf Hitler

Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to his suicide in 1945; created a strongly centralized state in Germany; eliminated all rivals; launched Germany on aggressive foreign policy leading to WWII; responsible for genocide of European Jews.


George Clemenceau

French prime minister in last years of WWI and during Versailles Conference of 1919; pushed for heavy reparations from German.


David Lloyd George

Prime minister of Great Britain who headed a certain government through much of WWI and the turbulent years that followed.



Right of people in a region to determine whether to be independent or not.


League of Nations

International diplomatic and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I; one of the goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the United States in the peace negotiations; the United States was never a member.


National Congress party

Grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians; originally centered in cities of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and Madras; became political party in 1885; focus on national movement in India; governed through most of postcolonial period.


B. G. Tilak

Believed that nationalism in India should be based on appeals to Hindu religiosity; worked to promote the restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions; offended Muslims and other religious groups; first populist leader in Indian nationalist movement.


Morley-Minto Reforms

Provided educated Indians with considerably expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and all-Indian legislative councils.


Montagu-Chelmsford reforms

Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial numbers of elected Indians; passed in 1919.


Rowlatt Act

Placed restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press; acted to offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919.


Mohandas Gandhi

Successful leader of the Indian nationalist movement who combined religious, social, and political know-how into a massive nonviolent campaign.



"Truth force," a term used by Gandhi to describe peaceful boycotts, strikes, noncooperation, and mass demonstrations to promote Indian independence.


Lord Cromer

British High Commissioner of Egypt at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries; implemented many, but apparently not enough, social and economic reforms.



Prosperous Egyptian families who made up the middle class; leaders of the Egyptian nationalist movement came largely from this group.


Dinshawai incident

Clash between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidentally hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement.


Ataturk (a.k.a. Mustafa Kemal)

Postwar leader of Turkey who launched sweeping reforms, including women's suffrage and a Latin-based alphabet.


Hussein, Sherif of Morocco

Convinced Arab leaders to support the French and British during the war because of their pledges of Arab independence.



The Treaty of Versailles established British or French control over territories formerly held by Germany and the Ottoman Empire; especially important in regard to Arab areas after the war.



Members of a movement originating in eastern Europe during the 1860s and 1870s that argues that the Jews must return to a Middle Eastern holy land; eventually identified with the settlement of Palestine.


Balfour Declaration

British prime minister Lord Balfour's promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine issued in 1917.


Leon Pinsker

European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into Christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land.


Theodor Herzl

Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state.


Alfred Dreyfus

French Jew falsely accused of passing military secrets to the Germans; his mistreatment and exile to Devil's Island provided flash-point for years of bitter debate between the left and right in France.


World Zionist Organization

Founded by Theodor Herzl to promote Jewish migration to and settlement in Palestine to form a Zionist state.


Wafd party

Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa'd Zaghlul; negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922.


Sa'd Zaghlul

Leader of Egypt's nationalist Wafd Party; their negotiations with British led to limited Egyptian independence on 1922.


Marcus Garvey

African American political leader; had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s.


W.E.B. DuBois

African American political leader; had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s.



Organization that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and African diaspora before and after World War I.



Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements.


Lépold Sédar Senghor

One of the post-World War I writers of the négritude literary movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.

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