28: Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order Flashcards Preview

AP World History > 28: Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order > Flashcards

Flashcards in 28: Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order Deck (38):
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Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo set in motion the events that started World War

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Sarajevo

Administrative center of the Bosnian province of Austrian Empire; assassination there of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 started World War I.

2

Western Front

Front established in World War I; generally along line from Belgium to Switzerland; featured trench warfare and horrendous casualties for all sides in the conflict.

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Nicholas II

Tsar of Russia 1894-1917; forcefully suppressed political opposition and resisted constitutional government; deposed by revolution in 1917.

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Gallipoli

Peninsula south of Istanbul; site of decisive 1915 Turkish victory over Australian and New Zealand forces under British command during World War I.

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Armenian Genocide

Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.

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Eastern Front

Most mobile of the fronts established during WWI; after early successes, military defeats led to downfall of the tsarist government in Russia.

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Adolf Hitler

Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to his suicide in 1945; created a strongly centralized state in Germany; eliminated all rivals; launched Germany on aggressive foreign policy leading to WWII; responsible for genocide of European Jews.

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George Clemenceau

French prime minister in last years of WWI and during Versailles Conference of 1919; pushed for heavy reparations from German.

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David Lloyd George

Prime minister of Great Britain who headed a certain government through much of WWI and the turbulent years that followed.

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self-determination

Right of people in a region to determine whether to be independent or not.

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League of Nations

International diplomatic and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I; one of the goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the United States in the peace negotiations; the United States was never a member.

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National Congress party

Grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians; originally centered in cities of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and Madras; became political party in 1885; focus on national movement in India; governed through most of postcolonial period.

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B. G. Tilak

Believed that nationalism in India should be based on appeals to Hindu religiosity; worked to promote the restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions; offended Muslims and other religious groups; first populist leader in Indian nationalist movement.

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Morley-Minto Reforms

Provided educated Indians with considerably expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and all-Indian legislative councils.

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Montagu-Chelmsford reforms

Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial numbers of elected Indians; passed in 1919.

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Rowlatt Act

Placed restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press; acted to offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919.

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Mohandas Gandhi

Successful leader of the Indian nationalist movement who combined religious, social, and political know-how into a massive nonviolent campaign.

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satyagraha

"Truth force," a term used by Gandhi to describe peaceful boycotts, strikes, noncooperation, and mass demonstrations to promote Indian independence.

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Lord Cromer

British High Commissioner of Egypt at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries; implemented many, but apparently not enough, social and economic reforms.

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effendi

Prosperous Egyptian families who made up the middle class; leaders of the Egyptian nationalist movement came largely from this group.

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Dinshawai incident

Clash between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidentally hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement.

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Ataturk (a.k.a. Mustafa Kemal)

Postwar leader of Turkey who launched sweeping reforms, including women's suffrage and a Latin-based alphabet.

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Hussein, Sherif of Morocco

Convinced Arab leaders to support the French and British during the war because of their pledges of Arab independence.

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mandates

The Treaty of Versailles established British or French control over territories formerly held by Germany and the Ottoman Empire; especially important in regard to Arab areas after the war.

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Zionists

Members of a movement originating in eastern Europe during the 1860s and 1870s that argues that the Jews must return to a Middle Eastern holy land; eventually identified with the settlement of Palestine.

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Balfour Declaration

British prime minister Lord Balfour's promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine issued in 1917.

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Leon Pinsker

European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into Christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land.

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Theodor Herzl

Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state.

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Alfred Dreyfus

French Jew falsely accused of passing military secrets to the Germans; his mistreatment and exile to Devil's Island provided flash-point for years of bitter debate between the left and right in France.

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World Zionist Organization

Founded by Theodor Herzl to promote Jewish migration to and settlement in Palestine to form a Zionist state.

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Wafd party

Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa'd Zaghlul; negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922.

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Sa'd Zaghlul

Leader of Egypt's nationalist Wafd Party; their negotiations with British led to limited Egyptian independence on 1922.

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Marcus Garvey

African American political leader; had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s.

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W.E.B. DuBois

African American political leader; had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s.

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pan-African

Organization that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and African diaspora before and after World War I.

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négritude

Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements.

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Lépold Sédar Senghor

One of the post-World War I writers of the négritude literary movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.

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