29. Pneumoconioses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 29. Pneumoconioses Deck (59):
1

pneuconosioses - types

1. asbestosis
2. Berryliosis
3. Coal workers pnemoconiosis
4. silicosis

2

pneumoconioses ( except beryliosis ) - increased risk for

1. cor pulmonale
2. Caplan syndrome
3. cancer

3

Caplan syndrome

rheumatoid arthritis and pneumoconiases ( coal , asbestosis, silicosis ) with intrapulmonary nodules

4

Asbestosis is associated with ( xposure)

1. shipbuliding
2. roofing
3. plumbing

5

pathognomonic lesions of asbesrosis ( gross)

Ivory white, calcified supreadiaphragmatic and pleural plaques

6

areas of asbestos plaques

1. supreaduaphragmatic
2. pleural plaques

7

carcinomas associated with asvestosis

1. bronchogenic ca> mesothelioma

8

asbestosis affect (area)

lower lobes

9

asbestosis affect ( area)

lower lobes

10

berrylliosis associated with (exposure)

berrylilium in
1. aerospace
2. manufacturing industries

11

lung asbestosis - histology

ferruginous ( asbestos) bodies : goldern - brown fusiform rods resembling dumbbels, found in alveolar septum ( visuliazed using PAS stain), often obtain by branchoalveolar lavage)

12

ferruginous bodies are found in

alveolar septum

13

berryliosis affects ( area)

upper lobes

14

berrylliosis histology

noncaseasting granoulomas in lung, hilar lymph nodes and systemic organs

15

berrylliosis histology

noncaseating granoulomas in lung, hilar lymph nodes and systemic organs

16

berrylliosis treatment

occasionally responsive to steriods

17

Coal workers pneuconiosis is also known s

black lung disease

18

Coal workers pneuconiosis affects (area)

upper lobes

19

Coal workers pneuconiosis - pathophysiology

prolonged coal dust exposure --> macrophages laden with carbon --> inflammation and fibrosis

20

Anthracosis is caused by

mild exposure to carbon ( collection of macrophages laden with carbon )

21

Anthracosis- symptoms / found in

asympotmatic condition found in many urban dwellers exposed to sooty air

22

Anthracosis - occupation

found in many urban dwellers exposed to sooty air

23

Silicosis is associated with .... ( occupation )

1. foundries ( factory that produces metal castings)
2. sandblasting
3. Mines

24

Silicosis - pathophysiology

Macrophages respond to silica and release fibrogenic factors, leading to fibrosis. It is thought that silica may disrypt phagolysosomes and impair macrophages

25

Silicosis - increased risk for

1. TB
2. bronchogenic carcinoma

26

Silicosis affects ( area)

upper lobes

27

Silicosis - CXR

Eggshell calcification of hilar lymph nodes

28

pneumoconiases that affect upper lobes

1. coal worker;s pneumoconiosis
2. Silicosis
3. Berylliosis

29

pneumoconiases that affect lower lobes

asbestosis

30

pneumoconiases - increased risk for TB

silicosis

31

silicosis histology

fibrotic nodules found in upper lobes

32

asbestosis histology

fibrosis of lung and pleura ( plaques)

33

pneumoconiases - roofing

asbestosis

34

pneumoconiases -eggshel apperance

silicosis

35

pneumoconiases - black lung disease

coal worker's pneumoconiosis

36

pneumoconiases -ferruginous bodies

asbestosis

37

pneumoconiases - fibrosis

1.asbestosis
2. coal worker's pneumoconiosis
3. silicosis

38

pneumoconiases - respond to steroids

Berryliosis ( occaionally responsive)

39

rheuamtoid athritis and pneumoconiases with intrapulmonary nodules =?

Caplan disease

40

pneumoconiases - disrupts phagolysosomes

silicosis

41

pneumoconiases - types and affexted area of lung

1. coal worker;s pneumoconiosis
2. Silicosis ---> upper lobes ---> upper lobes
3. Berylliosis ---> upper lobes
4. Asbestosis --> lower lobes

42

Ferruginous bodies are visualized using

Prusian blue stain

43

asbestois also increases the risk of

pleural eddusions

44

• Silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, and asbestosis are associated with increased risk of what two other diseases?

Cor pulmonale and Caplan syndrome (the combination of pneumoconiosis and rheumatoid arthritis)

45

• What occupations are associated with exposure to asbestos?

Shipbuilding, roofing, and plumbing

46

• Asbestosis mainly affects the ____(lower/upper) lung lobe(s), whereas silica and coal workers' lung affects the ____(lower/upper) lobe(s).

Lower, upper

47

• A patient who works in an aerospace company is at risk for which type of pneumoconiosis?

Berylliosis, as working in the aerospace or manufacturing industries increases one's risk for beryllium exposure

48

• A patient presents with shortness of breath and cough. He works for a local aerospace manufacturing plant. Treatment?

Steroids, as granulomas arise in berylliosis that may respond to this treatment

49

• Which lobes of the lungs are affected in a patient with berylliosis?

Upper lobes

50

• Explain the pathogenesis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (also known as black lung disease).

Prolonged exposure to coal dust results in carbon within macrophages, which leads to inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs

51

• Which lobes of the lungs are most affected by coal miners' disease?

Upper lobes

52

• A patient is diagnosed with anthracosis. How does this differ from coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

Anthracosis is the result of exposure to sooty air in the city versus coal dust in coal workers (it is asymptomatic)

53

• Patients with silicosis typically work in which three fields?

Foundries, sandblasting, mining

54

• A foundry worker has dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows calcification of his hilar lymph nodes. What cell type is responsible?

Macrophages respond to silica exposure by releasing fibrogenic factors, leading to fibrosis of the lungs (the patient has silicosis)

55

• How does silicosis increase the risk of susceptibility to tuberculosis?

Silica impairs macrophage phagolysosomes, affecting their ability to effectively kill microbes

56

• A sandblaster has egg-shell calcification on chest X-ray. What disorders is this patient at increased risk of developing?

This patient has silicosis, increasing risk for TB and bronchogenic carcinoma

57

• A foundry worker has dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows hilar lymph node calcifications. He is at increased risk of what cancer type?



Bronchogenic carcinoma

58

• Which lobes of the lung are most affected by silicosis?

Upper lobes

59

• What is a mnemonic that helps you remember which pneumoconiosis affects the upper and lower lobes of the lungs?

Asbestos = from roof (insulation) but affects the base (lower lobes), silica and coal = from base (earth) but affect the roof (upper lobes)