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Flashcards in 2A/2B/3A/3B Deck (36):
1

Sensation:

the stimulus-detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain.

2

Perception:

the active process of organising the stimulus output and giving it meaning.

3

Bottom-Up Processing

Detection of individual stimulus elements -> Breakdown/Analysis of stimuli -> Combination and interpretation of 'Whole'

4

Top-Down Processing

Concept, Expectation -> Guides, Analaysis -> Interpretation of incoming stimuli

5

Factors affecting perception of physical symptoms

Attention
Environmental Cues
Expectation
Emotion

6

Give examples of factors affecting perception of physical symptoms

Attention: symptoms are felt less if listening to music whilst on a treadmill
Environmental Cues: freshers’ flu - coughing in lecture theatres
Expectation: if told that an injection is going to be painful
Emotion: anxiety can worsen the perception of symptoms

7

2 Types of Attention

Focused Attention
Divided Attention

8

Focused Attention

the ability to respond discretely to specific visual, auditory or tactile stimuli.

9

Divided attention

the highest level of attention and it refers to the ability to respond simultaneously to multiple tasks or multiple task demands.

10

What factors influence Perception? (6)

Attention
Current drive state (arousal)
Emotions
Individual values
Environment
Cultural background

11

What factors influence attention? (2 categories, 5 examples of each)

Stimulus Factors
- Intensity, novelty, movement, contrast, repetition

Personal Factors
- Motives, interests, threats, mood, arousal

12

Language Development
Influences

Genetic factors - some mutations lead to severe language problems, gene expression/mutations illustrate basic neural mechanisms of language

13

Critical Period for Language Acquisition

Ease of learning language decreases from 3-8 yrs
Past age 10, ease of learning language is much lower compared to early life

14

Brain regions associated with speench and what they do

15

15

3 types of Aphasia and what they mean

14

16

Executive Functioning

The executive system processes novel situations outside the domain of some of our ‘automatic’ psychological processes.

17

Dysexecutive Syndrome
- 8 characteristics

Impulsivity
Disinhibition
Emotional bluntness
Attentional problems
Perseveration
Inability to plan/manage goal-directed behaviour
Copes with written instructions but not unstructured tasks
Difficulty grasping complex or abstract ideas

18

Nature

sets out individual’s course via gender, genetics, temperament and maturational stages

19

Nurture:

shapes this predetermined course via the environment, parenting, stimulation and nutrition

20

Temperament:

innate aspects of individual’s personality, such as introversion/extroversion.

21

Reciprocal Socialisation:

socialisation is bidirectional, therefore children socialise parents just as parents socialise children

22

Piaget’s Model of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor stage
Preoperational stage
Concrete operational stage

23

Sensorimotor stage

0-2 yrs – understand words primarily through sensory experiences and physical interactions with objects

24

Preoperational Stage:

2-7 yrs – world is represented symbolically through words and mental images; no understanding of basic mental operations or rules

25

Concrete Operational Stage:

7-12 yrs – children can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible (concrete) objects and situations

26

Ainsworth (1978) – The Strange Situation

Study on attachment
Looked at behaviour of child when left alone in a room without their mother, and their response to the mother’s return

27

Assessment of Attachment (based on strange situation)

Tests how small children respond to temporary absence of their mothers (an unusual, but not frightening experience). Researchers look at two things:
How much the child explores the room on their own
How the child responds to the return of his mother

28

Measurement of Attachment
(4 types)

Secure
Insecure (Avoidant, Resistant, Disorganised)

29

Secure (65%):

free exploration and happiness upon mother’s return

30

Avoidant-Insecure:

little exploration and little emotional response to return

31

Resistant-Insecure:

little exploration, great separation anxiety, ambivalent to mother’s return

32

Disorganised-Insecure:

little exploration and confused response to mother

33

Kubler-Ross Stage Theory of Adjustment (Bereavement)

Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance

34

Five myths of coping with loss (Wortman & Silver, 1989)

Distress or depression is inevitable
Distress is necessary, and failure to experience distress is indicative of pathology
The importance of ‘working through’ the loss
Expectations of recovery
Reaching a state of resolution

35

Illness Representations – Leventhal (5 Dimensions)

Identity
Cause
Consequence
Timeline
Curability/Controlability

36

Give examples of Identity
Cause
Consequence
Timeline
Curability/Controlability
(Illness representations)

Identity (my cold is getting worse)
Cause (I got a cold because I haven’t been sleeping well)
Consequences (I wont be able to do sport because of my cold)
Timeline (my cold will be gone in a few days)
Curability/Controlability (if I rest, my cold will resolve)