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Flashcards in 2b - China Deck (103):
1

How many people does China have?

1.3 billion

2

How big is China?

9.6 million square km, with 18 million km coastline on the East

3

How many countries surround China?

14

4

What is the top of the 3 step ladder?

4000-8000m high - Tibetan Plateau / Himalayas

5

What does China have for electricity and power?

Three Gorges Dam, which is in the economic centre of China

6

Internal significance - Flow opportunities - Beijing

Beijing is the capital - whoever controls it has had to control and shape development of the country

7

International significance - Flow opportunities - Shanghai

Shanghai is the largest port, and millions move there for fashion, wealth, industrial, commercial growth etc.

8

Internal significance - Flow barriers - Taiwan

Taiwan is claimed by China, but only for 5 years in the last century

9

International significance - Flow barriers - E/S China Sea

E/S China Sea are claimed by China, but they're refusing to attend discussions with International Maritime Tribunal

10

Confucianism

China is influenced by Confucianist thought, which means that collectively there will be wealth and everyone has a responsibility to integrate themselves into society

11

China as communist?

The Three Gorges Dam is a huge HEP station that feeds all parts of China
This means that all people of China will have access to hydro-electric power

12

China as capitalist? - Numerical Rating

China uses a numerical rating system to judge the quality and contribution individuals make to society e.g. social media use, financial standing, recycling credentials

13

China as modern? - TGD

Three Gorges Dam uses very modern technologies

14

KHE - Opium Wars

Established a series of treaty ports

15

KHE - Shanghai

Thrived and attracted Huge RUM, with lots of millionaires

16

KHE - China's land in WW1

Given to Japan by the Treaty of Versailles, caused protests

17

KHE - Industrialisation

Major industrialisation began, with rational scientific, large scale engineering

18

KHE - WW2

Japan invaded China, leaving them with nothing - the Communist and National Party fought a huge civil war and redistributed land in China

19

KHE - Mao Zedong

Declared the Peoples Republic of China. Land was redistributed, landlords were killed and 60% of people benefitted from changes

20

KHE - Great Leap Forward

More people worked for steel and coal, which meant less food was being grown. It was meant to be for self-sufficiency but caused massive famine

21

KHE - Deng Xiopeng

Becomes leader and decides to reach out to other countries, particularly the USA. One-child policy introduced. Farmers can sell crops

22

KHE - Tiananman Square

the death of a well-respected moderniser sparked protests by students who demanded continued freedom - government squashed 100s of students with tanks, killing them

23

GDP Growth in China
China is the ... economy in the world

China has sustained rapid growth rates of approx 9.2% since 1990 - $0.9 trillion to $10.1 trillion
2nd largest economy in the world and is closing in on the USA

24

How has GDP growth affected the people of China?

China's middle classes consume an increasing population of China's manufacturing output
There have been rising inequalities and uneven development across the country though

25

FDI origin

China has successfully attracted massive FDI ($52.7 bn since 2002) since economic reforms were instituted

26

TNCs and China

Attracted to China due to their low age rates, favourable tax rates and a huge labour pool

27

Imports for China

raw materials and components, which allows China to be the leading producer or clothes and many essential products

28

China's manufactured goods ...

China's manufactured goods dominate the world, and has increased by 21% in 2002 to $322 bn

29

Economic sector change

The primary sector still dominates China's economy
However, the numbers of people in the secondary and tertiary sectors have increased significantly

30

Globalisation

The increasing interconnected and interdependence of the world economically, culturally and politically

31

Advances in technologies + Outsourcing

with Internet and phone networks it is possible for foreign countries (TNCs) to locate operations in China, and still control them from developed world centres like the UK and USA (outsourcing)

32

What has the growth of China led to? - rich

A new class of super-rich entrepreneurs (some of which are foreign)

33

SEZs (Special Economic Zones)

Provide employment for locals and allows domestic firms to expand and globalise themselves

34

RUM in China (7) - 4Gs, HMP

More people move towards the core parts of the country because there is:
High formal employment
Good levels of education
Good quality housing
Major cities
Greater infrastructure
Government policies
Population Flow IN

35

Death rate in China

the mortality rates are very low for most of the country, but on the Western side it is more as there are less healthcare services there

36

Fertility rate in China

There are more children aged 1-14 in the 'Heartland' and partly to the Western side of China (a more lenient One-Child Policy perhaps?)

37

Positive economic impact for age groups - education

Greater education for children

38

Negative economic impact for age groups - old people

Massive elderly population that need to be cared for

39

Positive economic impact for gender (2)

More working opportunities for boys and girls
Education for both genders

40

Negative economic impact for gender - uneven

uneven ratio of boys and girls

41

How many people are exposed to unhealthy Chinese Air?

Some 83% of Chinese are exposed to unhealthy air

42

How many people experience PM 2.5 levels?

Almost 50% experiences PM2.5 levels about USA’s highest threshold.

43

What is breathing Beijing's air equivalent to?

Breathing Beijing’s air = smoking almost 40 cigarettes a day

44

How many deaths does pollution cause?

Pollution causes 1.6m deaths a year in China

45

How much of Chinese water is polluted?

Nearly 60% of China's underground water is polluted

46

What do consumers want from the land?

Consumers want forest-based products for things like mining and urban expansion

47

What can deforestation cause?

Flooding, soil erosion and climate change (removal of carbon dioxide sink)

48

Where is pollution bad in China?

Pollution is worst between Beijing and Shanghai. Cities in the Heartland like Chongqing and Chengdu are also particularly bad

49

What are the PM 2.5 levels of Beijing?

90, where USA's danger levels are 25!

50

Greenhouse Gases in china

Chinese have 9% to 12% of global emissions, which is behind USA's 28.8%

51

Regional Influence of China - Japan

Brutal occupation by Japan makes for difficult political relations

52

What must China be able to trade through?

Must be able to trade through E/S China Sea as well as Malacca Strait, and there is a concern that Vietnam, Singapore or the Philippines could block trade routes

53

What does China want control over?

China wants control over everything within the 9-dash line (a bit beyond current control)

54

World Trade Organisation (WTO)

China joined in 2001 - permits easier trade with other countries

55

Shanghai Cooperation Council (SCO)

promotes sharing of wealth, trade, ideas and culture between china, Russia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan

56

ASEAN

China makes problems for other countries like Cambodia, if Cambodia give too much support for Vietnam or Philippines

57

UN Security Council

In 2010 - 14 blocked efforts by the USA to intervene in the Syrian Conflict along with Russia

58

EU

Britain needs Chinese wealth for investment in expensive infrastructure such as HS2

59

What happened after Tiananmen Square?

The EU banned selling military equipment and technology to China

60

What have Chinese companies done and what is the knock-on effect of this?

As they haven't sold their product very well, they've exported large amounts of goods to Europe which reduces their price
European businesses then find it hard to make a profit which makes them go bankrupt
As a result, the EU makes it harder for Chinese companies to do business in Europe

61

What does the USA believe?

Everyone should have free movement through international waters

62

USA - blue water navy

China is building a blue water navy e.g. aircraft carriers operate in coastal waters (1st Island Chain) and beyond, into areas the USA has influence on

63

What do China have in terms of technology? (2)

China's technology is currently obsolete - its ships are 2nd hand from nearby countries
Although it has 400 nuclear warheads, the USA has over 1000

64

What can't local companies do?

Local private companies can't compete, and they don't have the resources to build a road/power station

65

What are new Chinese goods not, and what is the cause of this?

New Chinese goods aren't of high quality, and there are local riots as a result of this

66

What is happening to clothing?

The value of clothing / textiles has fallen by 17%, which creates job losses of up to 50% in Kenya, South Africa and Lesotho

67

What did China block from the UN Security Council?

They blocked a UN resolution to stop civil war in Dafur, Sudan

68

How many state Chinese companies work in construction in Africa?

650, e.g Supreme Court in Nigeria, presidential palace in DRC

69

What does China want from the world?

China wants political equality, not just America ruling the world

70

How many teachers and doctors get sent to Africa, and what do they get in return for it?

600 teachers and 15000 doctors have been sent to Africa. In return they get raw materials such as barrels of oil

71

What are the implications of China's International Role?

Everything is unconditional trade
Poverty is ignored
There is more money for Africa extracting raw materials
What you really want is good governance, human rights, but in reality people don't have enough food to eat / clothes to wear

72

What is the 2nd part of the 3 step ladder?

1000-2000m high - Huge basins and Plateau cut into by 4 huge rivers

73

What is the lowest part of the 3 step ladder?

Lower Yangtze Plains - lowland plains in NE, N and middle

74

Internal significance - Flow opportunities - Heartland

Yellow and Yangtze Rivers are joined by the Grand Canal and form what is known as the the 'Heartland', which is an area where most of China's food originates

75

Internal significance - Flow opportunities - Chongqing and Chengdu

Chongqing and Chengdu are massive growth industrial heartland cities, for things like finance and logical industry, as well as ICT, research, software, energy

76

International significance - Flow opportunities - Tibetan Port

The Tibetan Port is the source of China's 3 major rivers

77

International significance - Flow opportunities - Trains

4 trains go from Shanghai and Beijing everyday

78

International significance - Flow opportunities - Mekong River

The Mekong river flows into Laos, then Thailand and Vietnam, who use the river for industrialisation

79

International significance - Flow barriers - Japan

Japan dominates Sea of Japan

80

International significance - Flow barriers - Ryuku Islands

Ryuku Islands are home to an American military base

81

China as capitalist? - Rural poverty

Rural poverty, means that people have to travel to cities to find work, with few rights

82

China as capitalist? - other countries

China doesn't want to interfere with other countries

83

China as modern? - global demand

A growing global demand for Chinese martial arts, films, learning Mandarin and tourism

84

China as modern? - investment

Investment in newer green technological solutions e.g. solar cells

85

China as modern? - imports and exports

A net importer of oil, microchips iron and gold, and a major exporter of computers and phones

86

What has the growth of China led to? - transport

Transport improvements - brought down the cost of shipping manufactured goods significantly

87

Positive economic impact for age groups - jobs

Highly skilled jobs / wages for workers

88

Positive economic impact for age groups - middle class

Middle class make their own business - multiplier effect

89

Negative economic impact for age groups - support

Lack of support for elderly due to lack of money for health care

90

Negative economic impact for age groups - education

Lack of need for education

91

Negative economic impact for age groups - exploitation

Some exploitation for labour

92

Negative economic impact for gender - one child policy

one-child policy - a smaller new generation for China

93

Negative economic impact for gender - marriage

Due to one child policy, children without prospect of marriage

94

Negative economic impact for gender - social pressures

Due to one child policy, social pressures for women who may have to give up their own child

95

Negative economic impact for gender - leaving

men sometimes leave women after marriage

96

Regional Influence of China - border disputes

Border disputes with India, as China needs water from the Tibet (Himalayas)

97

USA - China support

China is gaining support from countries like Vietnam and Philippines

98

USA - China ports

China is building ports and bases in Burma, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

99

China as modern? - Greater nationalism

China has patriotism and is promoting the countries culture

100

China as modern? - Self-dependence

China doesn't need help from other countries

101

China as modern? - Semi-individual autonomy

Everything China does links back to the state

102

China as modern? - Order

In China, everyone follows what one party leader says

103

China as modern? - Scientific thought

China now has more factual and less religious thinking