Flashcards in 2b - China Deck (103):
How many people does China have?
How big is China?
9.6 million square km, with 18 million km coastline on the East
How many countries surround China?
What is the top of the 3 step ladder?
4000-8000m high - Tibetan Plateau / Himalayas
What does China have for electricity and power?
Three Gorges Dam, which is in the economic centre of China
Internal significance - Flow opportunities - Beijing
Beijing is the capital - whoever controls it has had to control and shape development of the country
International significance - Flow opportunities - Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest port, and millions move there for fashion, wealth, industrial, commercial growth etc.
Internal significance - Flow barriers - Taiwan
Taiwan is claimed by China, but only for 5 years in the last century
International significance - Flow barriers - E/S China Sea
E/S China Sea are claimed by China, but they're refusing to attend discussions with International Maritime Tribunal
China is influenced by Confucianist thought, which means that collectively there will be wealth and everyone has a responsibility to integrate themselves into society
China as communist?
The Three Gorges Dam is a huge HEP station that feeds all parts of China
This means that all people of China will have access to hydro-electric power
China as capitalist? - Numerical Rating
China uses a numerical rating system to judge the quality and contribution individuals make to society e.g. social media use, financial standing, recycling credentials
China as modern? - TGD
Three Gorges Dam uses very modern technologies
KHE - Opium Wars
Established a series of treaty ports
KHE - Shanghai
Thrived and attracted Huge RUM, with lots of millionaires
KHE - China's land in WW1
Given to Japan by the Treaty of Versailles, caused protests
KHE - Industrialisation
Major industrialisation began, with rational scientific, large scale engineering
KHE - WW2
Japan invaded China, leaving them with nothing - the Communist and National Party fought a huge civil war and redistributed land in China
KHE - Mao Zedong
Declared the Peoples Republic of China. Land was redistributed, landlords were killed and 60% of people benefitted from changes
KHE - Great Leap Forward
More people worked for steel and coal, which meant less food was being grown. It was meant to be for self-sufficiency but caused massive famine
KHE - Deng Xiopeng
Becomes leader and decides to reach out to other countries, particularly the USA. One-child policy introduced. Farmers can sell crops
KHE - Tiananman Square
the death of a well-respected moderniser sparked protests by students who demanded continued freedom - government squashed 100s of students with tanks, killing them
GDP Growth in China
China is the ... economy in the world
China has sustained rapid growth rates of approx 9.2% since 1990 - $0.9 trillion to $10.1 trillion
2nd largest economy in the world and is closing in on the USA
How has GDP growth affected the people of China?
China's middle classes consume an increasing population of China's manufacturing output
There have been rising inequalities and uneven development across the country though
China has successfully attracted massive FDI ($52.7 bn since 2002) since economic reforms were instituted
TNCs and China
Attracted to China due to their low age rates, favourable tax rates and a huge labour pool
Imports for China
raw materials and components, which allows China to be the leading producer or clothes and many essential products
China's manufactured goods ...
China's manufactured goods dominate the world, and has increased by 21% in 2002 to $322 bn
Economic sector change
The primary sector still dominates China's economy
However, the numbers of people in the secondary and tertiary sectors have increased significantly
The increasing interconnected and interdependence of the world economically, culturally and politically
Advances in technologies + Outsourcing
with Internet and phone networks it is possible for foreign countries (TNCs) to locate operations in China, and still control them from developed world centres like the UK and USA (outsourcing)
What has the growth of China led to? - rich
A new class of super-rich entrepreneurs (some of which are foreign)
SEZs (Special Economic Zones)
Provide employment for locals and allows domestic firms to expand and globalise themselves
RUM in China (7) - 4Gs, HMP
More people move towards the core parts of the country because there is:
High formal employment
Good levels of education
Good quality housing
Population Flow IN
Death rate in China
the mortality rates are very low for most of the country, but on the Western side it is more as there are less healthcare services there
Fertility rate in China
There are more children aged 1-14 in the 'Heartland' and partly to the Western side of China (a more lenient One-Child Policy perhaps?)
Positive economic impact for age groups - education
Greater education for children
Negative economic impact for age groups - old people
Massive elderly population that need to be cared for
Positive economic impact for gender (2)
More working opportunities for boys and girls
Education for both genders
Negative economic impact for gender - uneven
uneven ratio of boys and girls
How many people are exposed to unhealthy Chinese Air?
Some 83% of Chinese are exposed to unhealthy air
How many people experience PM 2.5 levels?
Almost 50% experiences PM2.5 levels about USA’s highest threshold.
What is breathing Beijing's air equivalent to?
Breathing Beijing’s air = smoking almost 40 cigarettes a day
How many deaths does pollution cause?
Pollution causes 1.6m deaths a year in China
How much of Chinese water is polluted?
Nearly 60% of China's underground water is polluted
What do consumers want from the land?
Consumers want forest-based products for things like mining and urban expansion
What can deforestation cause?
Flooding, soil erosion and climate change (removal of carbon dioxide sink)
Where is pollution bad in China?
Pollution is worst between Beijing and Shanghai. Cities in the Heartland like Chongqing and Chengdu are also particularly bad
What are the PM 2.5 levels of Beijing?
90, where USA's danger levels are 25!
Greenhouse Gases in china
Chinese have 9% to 12% of global emissions, which is behind USA's 28.8%
Regional Influence of China - Japan
Brutal occupation by Japan makes for difficult political relations
What must China be able to trade through?
Must be able to trade through E/S China Sea as well as Malacca Strait, and there is a concern that Vietnam, Singapore or the Philippines could block trade routes
What does China want control over?
China wants control over everything within the 9-dash line (a bit beyond current control)
World Trade Organisation (WTO)
China joined in 2001 - permits easier trade with other countries
Shanghai Cooperation Council (SCO)
promotes sharing of wealth, trade, ideas and culture between china, Russia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan
China makes problems for other countries like Cambodia, if Cambodia give too much support for Vietnam or Philippines
UN Security Council
In 2010 - 14 blocked efforts by the USA to intervene in the Syrian Conflict along with Russia
Britain needs Chinese wealth for investment in expensive infrastructure such as HS2
What happened after Tiananmen Square?
The EU banned selling military equipment and technology to China
What have Chinese companies done and what is the knock-on effect of this?
As they haven't sold their product very well, they've exported large amounts of goods to Europe which reduces their price
European businesses then find it hard to make a profit which makes them go bankrupt
As a result, the EU makes it harder for Chinese companies to do business in Europe
What does the USA believe?
Everyone should have free movement through international waters
USA - blue water navy
China is building a blue water navy e.g. aircraft carriers operate in coastal waters (1st Island Chain) and beyond, into areas the USA has influence on
What do China have in terms of technology? (2)
China's technology is currently obsolete - its ships are 2nd hand from nearby countries
Although it has 400 nuclear warheads, the USA has over 1000
What can't local companies do?
Local private companies can't compete, and they don't have the resources to build a road/power station
What are new Chinese goods not, and what is the cause of this?
New Chinese goods aren't of high quality, and there are local riots as a result of this
What is happening to clothing?
The value of clothing / textiles has fallen by 17%, which creates job losses of up to 50% in Kenya, South Africa and Lesotho
What did China block from the UN Security Council?
They blocked a UN resolution to stop civil war in Dafur, Sudan
How many state Chinese companies work in construction in Africa?
650, e.g Supreme Court in Nigeria, presidential palace in DRC
What does China want from the world?
China wants political equality, not just America ruling the world
How many teachers and doctors get sent to Africa, and what do they get in return for it?
600 teachers and 15000 doctors have been sent to Africa. In return they get raw materials such as barrels of oil
What are the implications of China's International Role?
Everything is unconditional trade
Poverty is ignored
There is more money for Africa extracting raw materials
What you really want is good governance, human rights, but in reality people don't have enough food to eat / clothes to wear
What is the 2nd part of the 3 step ladder?
1000-2000m high - Huge basins and Plateau cut into by 4 huge rivers
What is the lowest part of the 3 step ladder?
Lower Yangtze Plains - lowland plains in NE, N and middle
Internal significance - Flow opportunities - Heartland
Yellow and Yangtze Rivers are joined by the Grand Canal and form what is known as the the 'Heartland', which is an area where most of China's food originates
Internal significance - Flow opportunities - Chongqing and Chengdu
Chongqing and Chengdu are massive growth industrial heartland cities, for things like finance and logical industry, as well as ICT, research, software, energy
International significance - Flow opportunities - Tibetan Port
The Tibetan Port is the source of China's 3 major rivers
International significance - Flow opportunities - Trains
4 trains go from Shanghai and Beijing everyday
International significance - Flow opportunities - Mekong River
The Mekong river flows into Laos, then Thailand and Vietnam, who use the river for industrialisation
International significance - Flow barriers - Japan
Japan dominates Sea of Japan
International significance - Flow barriers - Ryuku Islands
Ryuku Islands are home to an American military base
China as capitalist? - Rural poverty
Rural poverty, means that people have to travel to cities to find work, with few rights
China as capitalist? - other countries
China doesn't want to interfere with other countries
China as modern? - global demand
A growing global demand for Chinese martial arts, films, learning Mandarin and tourism
China as modern? - investment
Investment in newer green technological solutions e.g. solar cells
China as modern? - imports and exports
A net importer of oil, microchips iron and gold, and a major exporter of computers and phones
What has the growth of China led to? - transport
Transport improvements - brought down the cost of shipping manufactured goods significantly
Positive economic impact for age groups - jobs
Highly skilled jobs / wages for workers
Positive economic impact for age groups - middle class
Middle class make their own business - multiplier effect
Negative economic impact for age groups - support
Lack of support for elderly due to lack of money for health care
Negative economic impact for age groups - education
Lack of need for education
Negative economic impact for age groups - exploitation
Some exploitation for labour
Negative economic impact for gender - one child policy
one-child policy - a smaller new generation for China
Negative economic impact for gender - marriage
Due to one child policy, children without prospect of marriage
Negative economic impact for gender - social pressures
Due to one child policy, social pressures for women who may have to give up their own child
Negative economic impact for gender - leaving
men sometimes leave women after marriage
Regional Influence of China - border disputes
Border disputes with India, as China needs water from the Tibet (Himalayas)
USA - China support
China is gaining support from countries like Vietnam and Philippines
USA - China ports
China is building ports and bases in Burma, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
China as modern? - Greater nationalism
China has patriotism and is promoting the countries culture
China as modern? - Self-dependence
China doesn't need help from other countries
China as modern? - Semi-individual autonomy
Everything China does links back to the state
China as modern? - Order
In China, everyone follows what one party leader says