2nd Evals 2018 - Hx - Muscle to Lymphoid Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd Evals 2018 - Hx - Muscle to Lymphoid Tissue Deck (80)
1

1. Cellsthataremultinucleated:
A. skeletal muscle cells
B. cardiac muscle cells
C. smooth muscle cells D. A&Bonly

A

2

2. Musclecellsthatbranch: A. skeletal muscle cells B. cardiac muscle cells
C. smooth muscle cells D. B&Conly

B

3

3. Connectivetissuethatenvelopsamusclefascicle:
A. perimysium
B. endomysium
C. epimysium
D. superficial fascia

A

4

4. TRUEofmyofibrils:
A. They are made up of sarcomeres that are laid end to end.
B. They fill the cytoplasm of skeletal but not of smooth and cardiac muscle cells. C. They exhibit alternating light and dark bands.
D. A&Cabove

D

5

5. TRUEofasarcomere:
A. It spans two M-lines.
B. It is made up of myofilaments.
C. It is bisected by the Z-line. D. All of the above

B

6

6. TRUEofthinfilamentsinsarcomeres:
A. They are more numerous than the thick filaments.
B. Their principal protein component is F-actin.
C. They have binding sites for the heads of myosin molecules. D. All of the above

D

7

7. Regionofthesarcomerethatconsistofthickfilamentsthatarenotoverlappedbythin filaments:
A. A-band C. H-band
B. I-band D. None of the above

C

8

8. Whichofthefollowingregion/softhemyofibrildiminish/esinwidthwhenamusclefiber contracts?
A. A-band C. H-band
B. I-band D. B & C only

D

9

9. Structuresthattransmitsthedepolarizationimpulsefromthesurfaceofaskeletalmusclecell to the junctions of the A- and I-bands:
A. motor endplates
B. T-tubules
C. sarcoplasmic reticula
D. efferent fibers of somatic motor neuron

B

10

10.Proprioceptive organ of skeletal muscles that are made up of several modified striated muscle fibers (intrafusal fibers) that are provided with sensory nerve endings.
A. Neuromuscular spindle C. both B. Golgi tendon organ D. neither

A

11

11.TRUE about the types of skeletal muscle fibers:
A. Red muscle fibers are smaller than white muscle fibers.
B. The white muscle fibers contract at a slower rate than red muscle fibers.
C. The white muscle fibers contain more mitochondria, glycogen granules and myoglobin. D. All of the above

A

12

12.Specialized junctional complex that is NOT present in the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle:
A. zonula occludens
B. fascia adherens C. desmosome
D. gap junction

A

13

13.TRUE of Purkinje fibers in the heart:
A. They are modified but still contractile cardiac muscle cells.
B. They comprise the impulse conducting system of the heart.
C. They form motor endplates with the axon terminals of somatic efferent motor neurons. D. B&Cabove

B

14

14.TRUE of smooth muscle cells:
A. They contain a single, oval and centrally located nucleus.
B. They are not striated because their myofilaments do not form myofibrils.
C. Their contraction is initiated by the interaction of calcium ions with an enzyme called
calmodulin-myosin light chain kinase.
D. All of the above

D

15

15.TRUE of the myofilaments of smooth muscle cells:
A. The thin filaments are anchored on dense bodies.
B. The thick filaments do not contain myosin.
C. The thin filaments possess troponin-tropomyosin complexes that cover the binding sites
on the actin molecules.
D. All of the above

A

16

16.Cartilage where the predominant extracellular fiber is collagen type II: A. hyaline C. fibrous
B. elastic D. A & B only

D

17

17. Cartilage type that is replaced by bone during endochondral ossification:
A. hyaline C. fibrous
B. elastic D. none of the above

A

18

18.TRUE of osteoprogenitor cells:
A. They differentiate from mesenchymal cells.
B. They can give rise to chondroblasts and osteoblasts.
C. They are present in the periosteum, perichondrium and endosteum. D. All of the above

D

19

19.Isogenous cells that are seen in hyaline cartilages are evidence of: A. interstitial growth C. both B. appositional growth D. neither

a

20

20.TRUE of bone matrix:
A. Its ground substance does not contain GAGs.
B. Its extracellular fibers are mainly type II collagen fibers.
C. Its inorganic content consists mainly of crystals that are in the form of calcium
hydroxyapatite.
D. All of the above

C

21

21.The type of junctional complex that connects the processes of osteocytes in the bone canaliculi:
A. desmosome
B. gap junction
C. zonula occludens D. all of the above

B

22

22.TRUE of osteoblasts:
A. They synthesize the components of bone matrix.
B. They are inside lacunae.
C. They are cells that can still mitose.
D. All of the above

A

23

23.Which of the following cells come from the bone marrow?
A. chondrocytes
B. osteocytes
C. osteoblasts
D. osteoclasts

D

24

24.TRUE of osteoclasts:
A. They are multinucleated giant cells.
B. They release the content of their lysosomes to the extracellular space at their ruffled
border.
C. They are the target cells of parathyroid hormone.
D. A&Babove

D

25

25.TRUE of Volkmann’s canals:
A. They are lined by endosteum.
B. They contain blood vessels that connect the blood vessels in the Haversian canals to
those in the medullary cavity and the periosteum.
C. They are present in both compact and spongy bone.
D. A&Babove

D

26

26. TRUE of spongy bone:
B. They are characterized by Haversian systems. C. Both
D. Neither

A

27

27.Bone formation that occurs in areas that is occupied by mesenchyme: A. endochondral C. both
B. intramembranous D. neither

B

28

28.In the epiphyseal plate, osteoblasts that adhere to cartilage fragments can be seen in which region?
A. zone of proliferation C. zone of calcification B. zone of maturation D. zone of ossification

D

29

29.The unending cycle of resorption and formation of Haversian systems:
A. external bone remodeling C. endochondral ossification B. internal bone remodeling D. intramembraous ossification

B

30

30. Newly formed bone matrix fails to calcify when which substance is deficient?
A. vitamin A B. vitamin C
C. vitamin D
D. human growth hormone

C

31

31.Plasma protein that is not synthesized in the liver: A. albumin
B. alpha globulin
C. gamma globulin
D. fibrinogen

C

32

32.Of the following formed elements of blood, which are most numerous?
A. platelets C. lymphocytes B. neutrophils D. monocytes

A

33

33. The percentage of blood volume that is accounted for by the red blood cells is called: A. hemoglobin level C. differential count
B. hematocrit D. buffy coat

B

34

34.Which cell type accounts for 20-40% of the WBCs in normal blood?
A. neutrophils C. basophils B. lymphocytes D. eosinophils

B

35

35.Cells whose diameter is 17-20 micrometers in blood smears:
A. RBCs C. basophils B. eosinophils D. monocytes

D

36

36.Which of the following formed elements of blood have the longest lifespan? A. RBC C. neutrophil
B. platelet D. basophilA

A

37


37.In blood smears, an RBC that has less than the normal amount of hemoglobin is called:
A. microcytic
B. normochromic
C. hypochromic
D. hyperchromic

C

38

38.An RBC whose diameter is 8.0 micrometers is: A. microcytic
B. poikilocytotic
C. normocytic
D. macrocytic

C

39

39. Tubular invaginations of the platelet membrane that serve as entry and exit points for substances to and from the platelet:
A. surface connecting canalicular system B. dense tubular system

C. granulomere D. hyalomere

A

40

40. In neutrophils, which are secretory granules? A. nonspecific granules
B. specific granules
C. both D. neither

B

41

41.TRUE of azurophilic or nonspecific granules: A. They are present in all WBCs.
B. They are actually lysosomes.

C. both
D. neither

C

42

42.Barr bodies are found in:
A. neutrophils
B. eosinophils
C. lymphocytes D. A & B only

A

43

43. Cells whose secretory granules contain substances that can amplify the body’s inflammatory response and worsen symptoms of conditions such as asthma and allergy.
A. neutrophils
B. eosinophils
C. monocytes D. lymphocytes

B

44

44.Pus cells are spent or dead:
A. neutrophils
B. basophils
C. eosinophils
D. all of the above

A

45

45.Connective tissue cell that is similar to the basophil in that its cytoplasmic granules also contain heparin and histamine.
A. plasma cell
B. mast cell
C. inflammatory macrophage D. lipoblast

B

46

46. In the embryo, hemopoietic stem cells first appear in the: A. ectoderm of the yolk sac
B. mesoderm of the yolk sac

B. mesoderm of the yolk sac
C. inflammatory macrophage D. lipoblast
C. endoderm of the yolk sac D. all of the above

B

47

47. In adults, the only blood cells that can be produced outside the bone marrow:
A. RBCs
B. neutrophils
C. monocytes
D. lymphocytes

D

48

48.TRUE of thrombopoietin:
A. It is the primary regulator of megakaryopoiesis
B. It is mainly produced by the kidney. C. both
D. neither

A

49

49.Which of the following progenitor cells differentiates directly from the hemopoietic stem cell?
A. myeloid stem cell B. T stem cell
C. B stem cell
D. All of the above

D

50

50.Blood cells whose progenitor cell is the CFU-GM:
A. neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
B. neutrophils and monocytes
C. neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes D. neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes

B

51

51.The precursor cell of the granulocytes:
A. proerythroblast C. monoblast B. myeloblast D. lymphoblast

B

52

52.Which of the following cells of the erythroid lineage has no nucleus:
A. polychromatophilic erythroblast C. reticulocyte B. normoblast D. B & C only

C

53

53.Which of the following cells of the erythroid lineage has the greatest diameter:
A. polychromatophilic erythroblast C. basophilic erythroblast B. normoblast D. reticulocyte

C

54

54.Which of the following cells of the granulocytic lineages possess specific granules: A. promyelocyte C. metamyelocyte
B. myelocyte D. B & C only

D

55

55. In the granulocytic lineages, which of the following cells is characterized by a deeply indented nucleus:
A. myeloblast B. promyelocyte
C. myelocyte
D. metamyelocyte

D

56

56.TRUE of the megakaryocyte:
A. It is a multinucleated giant cell.
B. Its precursor cell is the megakaryoblast.
C. both D. neither

B

57

57. T stem cells and B stem cells develop into mature and immunocompetent T cells and B cells in the:
A. central lymphoid organs C. both B. peripheral lymphoid tissues and organs D. neither

A

58

58.After monocytes leave blood and enter the different tissues of the body, they differentiate into: A. dendritic cells C. macrophages
B. mast cells D. all of the above

C

59

59. Lymphoblasts, the precursor cells of lymphocytes, can normally be found in the: A. central lymphoid organs C. both
B. peripheral lymphoid tissues and organs D. neither

A

60

60. TRUE of lymphocytes that are released by the thymus and bone marrow into the peripheral lymphoid tissues and organs:
A. They already possess antigen receptors. B. They are no longer capable of mitosis. C. They are naive.
D. A&Cabove

D

61

61.TRUE of inflammation:
A. Its main effector cells are the phagocytes. B. It is innate.
C. It is an immediate but localized response. D. All of the above

D

62

62.T cells that can differentiate into the different types of helper T-cells possess which receptor?
A. CD3
B. CD4
C. CD8
D. none of the above

B

63

63.The most potent APC: A. macrophage
B. dendritic cell
C. B cell
D. neutrophil

B

64

64. Helper T cells that activate naive B cells in humoral immunity:
A. Th1 cells C. Th3 cells
B. Th2 cells D. all of the above

B

65

65.T cells that are responsible for the secondary cell-mediated immune response:
A. helper T cells B. cytotoxic T cells
C. suppressor T cells
D. memory T cells

D

66

66.The most numerous cell type in diffuse lymphoid tissue: A. B cell
B. T cell
C. NK cell
D. Macrophage

B

67

67.The type of lymphoid nodule that is undertaking an immune response (i.e., nodule where lymphocytes are proliferating):
A. primary lymphoid nodule C. both B. secondary lymphoid nodule D. neither

B

68

68. Lymphoid organs that can generate the lymphocytes needed for both primary and secondary immune responses:
A. lymph nodes B. spleen
C. thymus
D. A & B only

D

69

69.Thymocytes are actually: A. B cells
B. T cells
C. NK cells
D. None of the above

B

70

70.The stroma of lymphoid organs consists of reticular tissue, EXCEPT:
A. thymus C. spleen
B. lymph node D. all of the above

A

71

71.The lymphoid-related dendritic cells in the medulla of the thymus that present autoantigens to the developing T cells:
A. follicular dendritic cells C. thymic interdigitating cells B. Langerhans cells D. nurse cells

C

72

72.The blood-thymus barrier that exists in the cortex of the thymus consist/s of: A. endothelial cells
B. epitheloid cells
C. perivascular spaces that separate the endothelial cells from the epitheloid cells. D. all of the above

D

73

73. Region/s of the lymph node that is populated mainly by T cells:
A. outer cortex C. medulla
B. inner cortex D. B & C only

B

74

74.The lymph vessels in the medulla of a lymph node are separated by:
A. medullary cords
B. cords of Billroth
C. connective tissue trabeculae D. epitheloid cells

A

75

75.In the spleen, the splenic sinusoids comprise most of the: A. white pulp
B. red pulp
C. splenic cords D. stroma

B

76

76.Lymph vessels called sinuses are present in which lymphoid organ?
A. lymph node C. spleen
B. thymus D. all of the above

A

77

77.PALS instead of connective tissue forms the tunica adventitia of which of the following arteries of the spleen?
A. central artery C. trabecular artery B. sheathed artery D. penicillary artery

A

78

78. The splenic arteries that are short and narrow blood vessels that are surrounded by concentric layers of reticular cells.
A. central artery C. trabecular artery B. sheathed artery D. penicillary artery

B

79

79.Large aggregates of MALT that are covered on their superficial surface by respiratory epithelium:
A. palatine tonsils B. lingual tonsils
C. tubal tonsils
D. Peyer’s patches

C

80

80.TRUE of the tonsils:
A. They are sites for lymphopoiesis.
C. tubal tonsils
D. Peyer’s patches
B. They filter lymph
C. They are enveloped by a dense connective tissue capsule. D. All of the above

A