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Flashcards in 2nd half Deck (23):

Ecological Approach to assessment?

• Microsystems: Smaller systems
• Mesosystems: Contain the microsystems and refers to the interrelationships
• Exosystem: Formal and informal specific social structures that impinge on the person (school, university, community agencies)
• Macrosystems: overarching institutional patterns of the culture of subculture (society, political, community norms, ethic)
• Reflection of curriculum based on exposure


Use of language proficiency to decide what languages to assess students?

• Monitor progress
• Plan instruction
• Prereferral + interventions: team, consultation
• Eligibility for bilingual education and English as a second language services
• Eligibility for special education
• Diagnostic
• Create the IEP
• No Child Left Behind Act: Develop language proficiency standards, report to federal government+ accountability


Best bilingual assessment recommended practices

monitor progress continuously
assess teach assess


Typical assessment profiles for ELL students?

• Lower Verbal Score (V, VCI)
• Higher Performance Scores (PRI)
• Performance scores that are verbally loaded
• Memory scores influenced by proficiency and dominance
• Verbally loaded processing speed items also influenced by proficiency and dominance
• Cultural influence: How they approach the task, time factors, tasks familiar to student, social situations (comprehension)
• Previous education impacts performance on general knowledge items (similarities, vocabulary, comprehension, information, arithmetic)


Difference between interpreter and translator?

Interpreter: Deal with spoken language and translate orally
Translator: deal with written text


2. Problems Inherent within the translation process

• Idioms, jokes, puns, colloquialisms, and metaphors are difficult to translate
• Regional differences=dialectical differences
• Equivalent words may not exist
• There may be multiple equivalent words
• Developmental level of words may vary


Challenges one can find when working with an interpreter?

• Research does not support using a translator for a test because results may not be valid or reliable
• Translations get messed up


Dynamics when working with interpreters?

• Professional barriers
i. Understanding roles/functions
ii. Understanding of the process
iii. Establishing “coworker alliance”-rapport and trust
iv. Establishing rapport with interpreter and clients
v. Systemic challenges


Basic Characteristics we want from interpreters?

• High proficiency in L1 and L2
• Good communicative skills
• Professional attitude
• Ability to work under pressure
• Sensitive to cultural differences
• Open to learning and training
• Ethical awareness and conduct
• Able to work well with others
• Knowledge of schools
• Knowledge of process


Practices of working with interpreters?

• Systemic: Guidelines from professional organizations, national & state policies
i. Hiring and training of interpreters
ii. Training professionals working with interpreters
iii. Scope of use of interpreters
iv. School districts, university programs working together to offer training


Access to train interpreters?

• Overview of process
• Validity, reliability, standardization
• Roles of interpreter during assessment
• Access to tests and test items ahead of time


2. Issues related to using children and family members as interpreters

• Should not serve as interpreters because many factors
i. Confidentiality
ii. Objectivity
iii. Quality of translation
iv. Sensitive subjects
v. Counterproductive
vi. May take longer (time)


3. Process of working with Interpreters for Parent Conferences

• Briefing: Discuss assessment session (tools, procedures), background information about student that interpreter needs to know, opportunity to ask questions and prepare
i. Opportunity to establish rapport
ii. Provide overview of session for interpreter (meeting, assessment session)
iii. Provide information about the context
iv. Address confidentiality
v. Decide on type of oral translation
vi. Establish sitting arrangements
vii. Discuss technical terms


3. Process of working with Interpreters for Parent Conferences

• During: Welcome all participants and introductions. Time to establish rapport. Important to speak in short sentences and allow time for translations
i. Avoid idioms, slangs, metaphors
ii. Take notes
iii. Check for understanding
iv. Interpreter to ask clarifying questions if needed


3. Process of working with Interpreters for Parent Conferences

• Debriefing
i. Discuss problems with translation
ii. Discuss cross-cultural differences
iii. Review notes, questions


2. Multicultural education approaches
Additive Approach

• Additive Approach (Already have curriculum)
i. Content, themes, perspectives added to the curriculum (book, unit, course) but no substantial changes in structure, purposes, characteristics


Multicultural Education Approaches
Transformation Approach

• Transformation Approach
i. Infuse various perspectives, frames of reference and content from various groups
1. i.e Reading two different perspectives about the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the new world


Multicultural Education Approaches
Social Action Approach

• Social Action Approach
i. Includes elements of the transformation approach because curriculum is substantially transformed
ii. Students make decisions on important social issues; take actions to problem solve
iii. Teach decision-making, empower students, skills in political efficacy
1. An outcome where students engage
2. Collect data on prejudice and discrimination, create brochure, video, program to address discrimination in school


2. Bilingual Education Models

i. Standard academic curriculum
ii. Language arts from second language perspective
iii. Content reinforcement
iv. Pullout
v. Sheltered or content instruction


2. Bilingual Education Models
• Bilingual Education

• Bilingual Education
i. Transitional or Early Exit- most common, teach in both language and eliminate in two to three years

ii. Maintenance or Late Exit- an enrichment program that educates English language learners using both English and the their first language for academic instruction

iii. Dual or Bilingual Immersion or Two-Way Bilingual- integrates language and academic instruction for native English speakers and native speakers of another language, usually Spanish, for content and literacy instruction


2. Bilingual Education Models
• Service Delivery

• Service Delivery
i. Full Day Programs
ii. Time Limited (half day or single period)
iii. Pull out vs. Push In
iv. Avoid constant translation


2. Strategies to increase language skills for ELLs

2. Strategies to increase language skills for ELLs
• Increase level of language gradually to expand on what has been learned
• Encourage use of vocabulary within sentences
• Encourage use of more complex sentences
• Modeling
• Cues, visual materials
• Focus on language + content
• Tie curriculum to student’s life experiences


Practices of working with interpreters?
Managent Plan

• Management Plan:
i. Roster of qualified interpreters
ii. Guidelines for interpreter’s roles
iii. Guidelines for selecting interpreters
iv. System for monitoring
v. Plan for training
vi. Reward system
vii. Procedures to help interpreters improve their performance