3/27&28 psych Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3/27&28 psych Deck (179):
1

cofactor for glutamate & GABA transaminase?

B6

2

fexofenadine
-what is it?

2nd gen. H1 blocker

3

2nd get H1 blockers
-suffix?
-exception?

-adine
-cetirizine

4

cetirizine
-what is it?

2nd get H1 blocker
-zertec

5

promethazine
-what is it?

1st gen H1 blocker

6

Buspirone
-pros?

Does not cause sedation, addiction, or tolerance.

7

DOPA
-short for what?

dihydroxyphenylalanine

8

rate-limiting step in catecholamine synth

tyrosine hydroxylase
-tyrosine => DOPA

9

reserpine
-mech:
-use:

-inhibits dopamine entry into pre-synaptic vesicles,
effectively causing a chemical sympathectomy.
-reduces BP & HR.

10

Ciliary muscle under what control?

Mostly muscarinic control.
-slight beta-2 control.

11

Opioids depress respiration by reducing responsiveness of central respiratory centers to ____

CO2

12

Highest risk age-group for suicide:

45-64

13

reuptake of Ca back into SR
-ATP dep?

yes, its ATP dependent. (ryanodine receptors).
-this is crucial part of malignant hyperthermia, burning all that ATP generates heat!
-high temp will induce muscle damage.

14

malignant hyperthermia
-how is the muscle damaged?

-low ATP & high temp from burning so much ATP damages muscle cells.
*you burn a lot of ATP trying to put that Ca back into the SR w/ryanodine receptors.

15

trigeminal neuralgia
-Tx:

carbamazepine

16

reduction of portal venous pressure to prevent variceal bleed

propranolol

17

Most feared side effect of carbamazepine

agranulocytosis

18

If a 3 year old doesn't play cooperatively w/other, is that a social development delay?

No. At 3 yo children are expected to play in parallel w/other kids, not cooperatively.

19

phenelzine
-what is it?

MAO inhibitor

20

Depressed pt who has hypertensive crisis after a wine/cheese party.

MAO-inhibitor / tyramine crisis.

21

Classic conditioning v Operant conditioning
-which one is dealing w/involuntary responses & which w/voluntary?

classic = involuntary (ie. salivating).
operant = voluntary (ie. behavior training).

22

Operant conditioning:
-what is "extinction"?

-Discontinuation of reinforcement (positive or negative) eventually eliminates behavior.
-ie. a child who climbs under his desk, a response which has been reinforced by attention, is subsequently ignored until the attention-seeking behavior no longer occurs.

23

Transference
-define:

Patient projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto physician (e.g., psychiatrist is seen as parent).

24

Countertransference
-define:

-Doctor projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto patient (e.g., patient reminds physician of younger sibling).

25

Dissociation
-mature or immature ego defense?
-define:

-immature
-Temporary, drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness, or motor behavior to avoid emotional stress.
-Extreme forms can result in dissociative identity
disorder (multiple personality disorder).

26

Denial
-mature or immature ego defense?

immature

27

Ego defenses
-conscious or unconscious?

unconscious

28

Displacement
-mature or immature ego defense?
-define:
-example:

-immature
-transfer of an impulse toward a safer & less
distressful object.
-husband yelling at his dog after argument w/wife.

29

Fixation
-mature or immature ego defense?
-define:
-example:

-immature
-Partially remaining at a more childish level of
development (vs. regression).
-Men fixating on sports games.

30

Identification
-mature or immature ego defense?

immature

31

Isolation
-mature or immature ego defense?
-define:
-example:

-immature
-Separating feelings from ideas and events.
-Describing murder in graphic detail with no emotional response.

32

Fantasy
-mature or immature ego defense?

immature

33

Projection
-mature or immature ego defense?
-define:
-example:

-immature
-projecting your "unacceptable" feelings onto someone
else.
-A man who wants another woman thinks his wife is cheating on him.

34

Rationalization
-mature or immature ego defense?

immature

35

Regression
-mature or immature ego defense?
-example:

-immature
-bedwetting in a previously toilet-trained child
when hospitalized

36

Repression
-mature or immature ego defense?
-voluntary or involuntary?

immature
-involuntary

37

Splitting
-mature or immature ego defense?
-commonly seen in which disorder?

-immature
-Commonly seen in borderline personality disorder.

38

Altruism
-mature or immature ego defense?

mature

39

Humor
-mature or immature ego defense?

mature

40

Sublimation
-mature or immature ego defense?
-define:
-example:

-mature
-Replacing an unacceptable wish with a course of action that is similar to the wish but does not conflict with one’s value system (vs. rxn formation).
-Teenager’s aggression toward his father is redirected to perform well in sports.

41

Reaction formation
-mature or immature ego defense?
-define:
-example:

-immature
-a person does the opposite of what he/she desires.
Usually a short-term immature response that eventually
breaks down. You feel bad about this desire.
-a former smoker vigorously enforcing a smoking ban.

42

Suppression
-mature or immature ego defense?

mature

43

mature ego defenses
-mnemonic:

Mature adults wear a SASH:
-Sublimation, Altruism, Suppression, Humor.

44

Anaclitic depression
-what is it?
-what is it a result of?

-infant withdrawn/unresponsive.
-result of infant deprivation.

45

Infant deprivation
-after how long are changes irreversible?
-what can severe deprivation result in?

> 6 mo
-Severe deprivation can result in infant death.

46

Sexual abuse of child
-peak age range?
-abuser?

-9-12
-Known to victim, usually male

47

Physical abuse of child
-peak age range?
-abuser?

< 3 yo
-Usually biological mother

48

ADHD
-onset before age __
-intelligence level?
-associated w/what physical brain abnormality?

-12
-normal intelligence but commonly coexists w/difficulties in school.
-Associated with  frontal lobe volume/metabolism.

49

atomoxetine
-what is it?
-whats it used for?

-NE reuptake inhibitor.
-ADHD

50

Conduct disorder
-age range?
-will most likely progress to what?

- < 18yo
-After age 18, many of these patients will meet criteria for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder.

51

Oppositional defiant disorder
-define:

Enduring pattern of hostile, defiant behavior toward authority figures in the absence of serious violations of social norms.

52

Tourette syndrome
-onset of age:
-how long must it last for a Dx?
-Tx:

- < 18 yo
- > 1 year
-antipsychotics and behavioral therapy.

53

Separation anxiety disorder
-common age of onset?
-Tx:

-7-9 yrs
-SSRIs and relaxation techniques/behavioral interventions.

54

Pervasive developmental disorders
-define:
-name 2 of them:

-Delays in the development of socialization and communication skills.
-Autism spectrum disorder, Rette disorder.

55

Do autistic children get separation anxiety?

-no separation anxiety b/c there was no attachment
in the first place.

56

Rett disorder
-inheritance pattern:
-seen in which pt population:

-X-linked recessive
-Seen in GIRLS bc boys w/disease die in utero.

57

Rett disorder
-Sxs:

-loss of development, loss of verbal abilities, intellectual disability, ataxia, and stereotyped hand-wringing.

58

Anxiety: NT levels
-NE:
-5-HT:
-GABA:

-inc. NE
-dec. GABA
-dec. 5-HT

59

Huntingtons disease: NT levels
-GABA:
-ACh:
-dopamine:

-dec. GABA
-dec. ACh
-inc. dopamine

60

Parkinson disease: NT levels
-dopamine:
-ACh:
-5-HT:

-dec. dopamine
-inc. ACh
-inc. serotonin

61

Parkinsons disease
-serotonin level?

-inc. serotonin

62

Schizophrenia
-which NT level is off the most?

inc. dopamine

63

Orientation
-what 3 things do they check and in which order are they lost?

Order of loss:
1st—time
2nd—place
last—person.

64

Dissociative amnesia
-what is it?

Inability to recall important personal information, usually subsequent to severe trauma or stress.
-May be accompanied by dissociative fugue.

65

Dissociative fugue

Abrupt travel or wandering during a period of
dissociative amnesia, associated with traumatic circumstances.

66

Cognitive disorder
-define:
-what two syndromes does are encompassed?

-Significant change in cognition: memory, attention, language, judgment.
-Includes delirium and dementia.

67

“Waxing and waning” level of consciousness
with acute onset.
-delirium or dementia?

Delirium

68

Delirium vs Dementia
-onset:
-consciousness:
-course:

-Delirium = acute = impaired consciousness = fluctuating
-Dementia = gradual (months to years) = intact consciousness = progressive

69

Delirium vs Dementia
-reversible?

Delirium = reversible
Dementia = irreversible

70

Delirium
-check drugs for which type of effect?

-anticholinergic effects.

71

Delirium
-hallucinations?
-if so what type?

hallucinations = often visual.

72

Delirium
-normal or abnormal EEG?
-Tx:

-Abnormal EEG.
-Optimize brain condition (O2, hydration, pain, etc.) & ƒ antipsychotics (mainly haloperidol).

73

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
-is the dementia reversible?

-yes, reversible.

74

Hypothyroidism
-is the dementia reversible?

-yes, reversible.

75

Neurosyphilis
-is the dementia reversible?

-yes, reversible.

76

B12 deficiency
-is the dementia reversible?

-yes, reversible.

77

Dementia
-normal or abnormal EEG?
-Tx:

-normal EEG.
-no Tx

78

Chronic substance abuse
-is the dementia reversible?

-No.

79

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
-is the dementia reversible?

-No.

80

Lewy body dementia
-is the dementia reversible?

-No.

81

Psychosis
-definition:
-characterized by:

-A distorted perception of reality.
-Delusions, hallucinations, &/or disorganized thinking.

82

Visual hallucinations
-More commonly a feature of what type of illness?

Medical illness (ie. drug intox).

83

Auditory hallucinations
-More commonly a feature of what type of illness?

Psychiatric illness (e.g., schizophrenia).

84

Tactile hallucinations
-Commonly seen in what?

-Common in alcohol withdrawal (e.g., formication—the sensation of bugs crawling on one’s skin).
-Also seen in cocaine abusers (“cocaine crawlies”).

85

HypnaGOgic hallucinations
-when do they occur?

Occurs while GOing to sleep.

86

HypnoPOMPic hallucinations
-when do they occur?

Occurs while waking from sleep (“POMPous upon awakening”).

87

Schizophrenia
-Sxs have to last for how long?
-chemical imbalance?
-inc or dec. dendritic branching?

> 6 mo.
-inc. dopamine
-dec. dendritic branching

88

Schizophrenia
-Dx req 2 of the following:

-Delusions
-Hallucinations—often auditory
-Disorganized speech (loose associations)
-Disorganized or catatonic behavior
-“Negative symptoms”—flat affect, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, lack of speech or thought

89

Schizophrenic Sxs for < 1 mo:
-defined as what?
-will pt fully recover?

-Brief psychotic disorder
-pt will return to full functionality.

90

Schizophrenic Sxs for 1-6 mo:
-defined as what?

Schizophreniform disorder

91

Schizoaffective disorder
-what needs to happen to Dx this?
-2 subtypes:

-At least 2 weeks of stable mood w/psychotic symptoms, plus a major depressive, manic, or mixed (both) episode. -2 subtypes: bipolar or depressive.

92

Delusional disorder
-has to last how long?
-describe it:

> 1 mo
-typically have a persistent, over-riding delusion w/a specific theme. Behavior is not obviously bizarre.

93

Dissociative disorders
-what are they?

-conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity, or perception.
-People with dissociative disorders use dissociation, an immature defense mechanism, pathologically and involuntarily.

94

Dissociative identity disorder
-formerly known as?

-Multiple personality disorder
-

95

Mood disorders
-what are they?
-name some of them:

-Abnormal range of moods or internal emotional states and loss of control over them.
-major depressive disorder
-bipolar disorder
-dysthymic disorder
-cyclothymic disorder

96

Mood disorders
-can psychotic features be present?

Yes.

97

Schizophrenia
-when does it present: men & women?

-Presents earlier in men.
-men: late teens to early 20s
-women: late 20s to early 30s

98

Manic episode
-by definition, how long does it have to last?

At least 1 week.

99

Manic episode
-requires hospitalization or at least 3 of the following:
-mnemonic?

DIG FAST
-Distractibility
-Irresponsibility—seeks pleasure without regard to consequences (hedonistic).
-Grandiosity—inflated self-esteem
-Flight of ideas—racing thoughts
-Inc. in goal-directed Activity/psychomotor Agitation
-dec. need for Sleep
-Talkativeness or pressured speech

100

Hypomanic episode
-what is it?
-are there psychotic features?
-how long does it last?

-Like manic episode except mood disturbance is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social and/or occupational functioning or to necessitate hospitalization.
-No psychotic features.
-Lasts at least 4 consecutive days.

101

Bipolar disorder
-Bipolar I =

-presence of at least 1 manic episode with or without a hypomanic or depressive episode.

102

Bipolar disorder
-Bipolar II

-defined by the presence of a hypomanic and a depressive episode.

103

Bipolar disorder
-is pts mood ever normal?

-Patient’s mood and functioning usually return to normal between episodes.

104

Should you use anti-depressants to treat bipolar pts?

No - it can lead to mania.
-you dont want to increase their dopamine!

105

Cyclothymic disorder
-what is it?
-how long does it have to last by definition?

-dysthymia and hypomania; milder form of bipolar disorder -Lasting at least 2 years.

106

dysthymia =

-mild but chronic depression.

107

Major depressive disorder
-how long do episodes have to be, minimally?

2 or more weeks.

108

Major depressive disorder
-have to have 2 of the 9 Sxs
-name the Sxs:
-mnemonic:

SIG E CAPS:
-Sleep disturbance
-loss of Interest (anhedonia)
-Guilt or feelings of worthlessness
-Energy loss and fatigue
-Concentration problems
-Appetite/weight changes
-Psychomotor retardation or agitation
-Suicidal ideations

109

Major depressive disorder: sleep changes
-slow wave sleep?
-REM latency
-total REM sleep
-nighttime awakening?

-dec. slow wave sleep
-dec. REM latency
-inc total REM sleep
-inc. nighttime awakenings
*early morning awakenings.

110

Major depressive disorder: sleep changes
-whats a good screening question?

Do they have early-morning awakenings.

111

Atypical depression
-difference from typical depression?

-mood reactivity
-“reversed” vegetative symptoms (weight gain).
-leaden paralysis (heavy feeling in arms and legs).
-

112

mood reactivity
-define
-what disorder do you see it in?

-being able to experience improved mood in response to positive events, albeit briefly.
-atypical depression.

113

Maternal (postpartum) “blues”
-how long after delivery does it begin?
-how long does it last?

-starts 2-3 days after delivery.
-usually resolves w/in 10 days.

114

Postpartum depression
-how long after delivery does it begin?
-how long does it last?

-starts within 4 weeks of delivery.
-lasts 2 weeks to a year or more.

115

Postpartum psychosis
-how long after delivery does it begin?
-how long does it last?

-starts within 4 weeks of delivery.
-lasts btwn 4-6 weeks.

116

If a pt complains about another doctor to you, what should you tell them?

I understand you're upset, but I suggest you speak directly to Mr. Smith about your concerns.
*If the pt is uncomfortable doing so, the hospital has pt advocates who can address their concerns for them.
*If the pt has a problem with someone in your office staff, tell the pt you will speak to that individual.

117

Bupropion
-C/I in which pts? why?

-Can cause seizures in bulimic w/purging or anorexia w/purging.
*bupropion reduces seizure threshold.
*due to their electrolyte imbalances from purging.

118

melanosis coli
-what is it?

Blackened area on the colon as a result of laxative abuse.

119

Which drug can be used in anorexics who have depression w/o fear of them losing more weight?

Mirtazapine

120

nortriptyline
-what is it?

TCA

121

If baby will die w/o C section but coherent mother refuses C section & admissions note also states she doesn't want C section - do you perform the C section to save the babies life?

No
-Even tho woman is pregnant, it does not limit the requirement of informed consent for a procedure.

122

Loss to follow-up
-what sort of bias is this?

Part of selection bias.

123

Sampling bias leads to a lack of ______ validity.

external

124

What age does babinsky reflex disappear?

12 months

125

At what age can baby climb stairs alone?

18 months

126

If a pt is calling w/anxiety about something - do you deal with it then or tell her to write down her questions and talk about it at appointment?

You deal with it then.

127

Does the good samaritan law protect you from legal action?

No
-you can get sued if the care provided was negligent and results in injury. Also if you didn't use standard of care.

128

Which recreational drug can produce vertical & horizontal nystagmus?

PCP

129

TCA OD
-Tx:

sodium bicarb for CV tox.

130

PCP OD
-Tx:

benzos & anti-psychotics

131

PTSD
-Tx:

SSRI
-fluoxetine.

132

BMI =

BMI = (weight in kg)/ [(height in m)^2]

133

Late-look bias
-what is it?

-info gathered at inappropriate time
-sampling people w/milder form of disease bc those w/severe form have already died from it.

134

whats a type 2 error

Finding no difference when in fact there is one.
-False negative

135

false negative rate of a test
-alpha or beta?

beta

136

Normal grief
-how long does it last?

6-12 months

137

Simple hallucinations during grieving
-normal or pathological?

normal
-ie. hearing name called.

138

Electroconvulsive therapy
-whats it used for?

1)major depressive disorder refractory to other treatment. 2)pregnant women with major depressive disorder.

139

Is access to firearms a risk for suicide completion?

Yes

140

Anxiety disorder
-encompasses which 3 disorders?

Includes panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.

141

Panic attack
-how long after it starts does it usually peak?

10 min

142

Panic disorder
-Dx requires what?

-Dx reqs attack followed by 1 month (or more) of 1 (or more) of the following:
-persistent concern of additional attacks.
-worrying about consequences of the attack.
-behavioral change related to attacks.

143

Panic attack
-what acid/base disorder do you get?
-what will bicarb be?

-respiratory alkalosis due to hyperventilation.
-bicarb is normal bc its an acute attack.

144

Shortness of breath
-aka?
-does it cause a resp acidosis or alkalosis?

dyspnea
-resp alkalosis bc you're breathing so fast.
*is this true? i dont know.

145

Social anxiety disorder
-Tx:

SSRI

146

Generalized anxiety disorder
-how long does it have to last to make the Dx?

> 6 months

147

Generalized anxiety disorder
-Tx:

SSRI, SNRI, buspirone.

148

Adjustment disorder
-branch of what disease?
-what is it?
-how long does it have to last to make the Dx?

-Generalized anxiety disorder
-emotional symptoms (anxiety, depression) causing impairment following an identifiable psychosocial stressor.
-< 6 months (> 6 months in presence of chronic stressor).

149

Obsessive-compulsive disorder
-associated w/what other disease?

-Associated with Tourette disorder.

150

Obsessive-compulsive disorder
-egodystonic or egosyntonic?

-egodystonic (vs. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder).

151

Pt. w/repeated plastic surgeries: may have what disease?

Body dysmorphic disorder
-preoccupation with minor or imagined defect in appearance, leading to significant emotional distress.

152

PTSD
-how long it last to make the Dx?

> 1 month
-leads to avoidance of stimuli.

153

PTSD
-Tx:

-psychotherapy, SSRIs.

154

What do you call PTSD that lasts btwn 3 days and 1 month?

Acute stress disorder

155

Malingering
-define

Patient consciously fakes, profoundly exaggerates, or claims to have a disorder in order to attain a specific 2° (external) gain (e.g., avoiding work, obtaining compensation).

156

Somatoform disorders
-is there a conscious attempt to deceive?

no

157

Factitious disorder
-is there a conscious attempt to deceive?

yes

158

Living will vs. durable power of attorney
-which supercedes?

Durable power of attorney supercedes

159

Does normal grief include suicidal thoughts?

No

160

Jehovah fitness child in emergency and needs blood. Parents refuse. Do you give him the blood?

Yes.

161

Bipolar I or II
-which has a manic episode?

Bipolar I has manic episode.
-bipolar I can be Dx after a single manic episode.

162

Non-random assignment to study groups
-what type of bias?

Selection bias.

163

Group of subjects is not representative of the population of interest
-what type of bias?

Sampling bias.

164

Premature delivery/labor: why would you want to stop labor?

So you can give penicillin & steroids to prevent group B strep & NRDS.

165

Prematurity
-limit of viability?

24 weeks.

166

tocolysis
-define

stopping labor.
-ie. terbutaline, ritodrine, magnesium sulfate.

167

tocolysis is attempted until how many weeks?

attempted for all babies < 34 weeks.

168

Stack six blocks, 2 word sentences, use utensils
-how old?

2 yo

169

Case control vs cohort
-make sure to pay attention to what?

Pay attention to wording of the question.
-If they wanna know what the risks of "developing" something is - that means prospective study which means cohort study.
-pay attention to tense of verbs.

170

Alcoholic withdrawal Tx:
-pt has cirrhosis

Out The Liver
Oxazepam, temazepam, lorazepam
*1st line = lorazepam.

171

Tuberous sclerosis
-associated w/which mental disability?

Autism.

172

Schizoid v avoidant
-which one desires relationships w/others?

avoidant

173

Hawthorne effect
-what is it?
-mnemonic?

-groups who know they’re being studied behave differently than they would otherwise
-being on the streets in Hawthorne knowing the cops are watching you. The criminals behave differently.

174

antisocial personality disorder
-associated w/which comorbidity?

substance abuse

175

Changes in elderly:
-more or less fat?
-more or less REM & slow wave sleep?

-more fat, less muscle.
-less REM & slow wave sleep.

176

Disorganized speech / loose connections - aka how kendall talks when he's manic.
-part of what umbrella term?

Part of psychosis.

177

Can psychotic features be present in mood disorders (ie. bipolarism)?
-example?

Yes.
-Like Kendall. He has bipolar disorder but also psychotic features like loose association (disorganized speech). He may also have hallucinations & delusions - who knows.

178

Baby rolls over w/o assistance
-how old?

6 mo.

179

Schizo
-inc. dopamine in which pathway?

mesolimbic system