3 Flashcards Preview

sty > 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3 Deck (145):
1

armory show

responsible for the eventual shift of
the center of the art world from Paris to New York.

2

harlem renaissance imspired (2)

1. jacob lawrence
2. romare bearden

3

dada

post-wwi. originated
among a group of disaffected intellectuals living in
Zurich and grew out of the angst of artists who were
disillusioned with the war. Dada was an art that
aimed to protest against everything in society and
to lampoon and ridicule accepted values and norms.

4

Duchamp, in fact, invented a new category of artworks
that he referred to as

ready mades

5

ready-mades. what were they

By taking
an ordinary object and giving it a new context,
Duchamp would create a work of art. In this way,
Duchamp challenged traditional ideas about the
way the artist functions-rather than physically
making a work of art, an object became a work of
art merely through the artist's choice.

6

bull's head

in a famous work Picasso took
an ordinary object-bicycle handlebars-and made
them appear as bull horns when coupled with a bicycle
seat

7

surrealists

Some artists, influenced by the theories of Sigmund
Freud, attempted to portray the inner workings
of the mind in their artworks. This group of artists
became known as the Surrealists and included
artists such as Salvador Dali, Rene Magritte, and Joan Miro .

8

One of the most influential events in the history of
art took place in Germany

btwn WWI and WWII. bauhaus was established

9

bauhaus

school of design. established standards for architecture
and design that would have a profound influence on
the world of art. The Bauhaus made a bold attempt
to reconcile industrial mass-manufacture with aesthetic
form

10

bauhaus view

form should follow
function and should be true to the materials used

11

josef albers

bauhaus faculty. came to US after nazis closed down the school.

12

During the 1950s the art scene in New York was
dominated by

the ideas and writings of critics such
as Harold Rosenberg and Clement Greenberg

13

greenberg was an advocate for

abstraction

14

Abstract Expressionism

Beginning in the 1940s, Abstract Expressionist
artists followed Kandinsky's dictum that art, like
music, could be free from the limitations of pictorial
subject matter. These artists aimed at the direct
presentation of feeling with an emphasis on dramatic
colors and sweeping brushstrokes.

15

abstract expressionism reached its pinnacle with the work of

jackson pollock

16

Abstract Expressionist works tended to fall into
two types:

action painting and color field paintings

17

action painting

employed dramatic
brushstrokes or Pollock's innovative dripping
technique

18

color field paintings

featured
broad areas of color and simple, often geometric
forms.

19

two wellknown
color field artists.

mark rothko and josef albers

20

jasper johns

created a series of works that
featured common things such as flags, numbers,
maps, and letters.

21

Robert Rauschenberg

created sculptures from the cast-off objects
he found around him to create what he called "combines."

22

pop art

1960s. incorporation of images
of mass culture, violated the traditional unspoken
rules regarding what was appropriate subject
matter for art.

23

andy warhol

icon of pop art. His soup cans, Brillo boxes,
and images of movie stars were created with a factory-like
silkscreen approach that he used to mock
the art world.

24

roy lichtenstein

adopted the imagery of comic books and
recreated them on such a large scale that the pattern
of dots used to print them was made massive

25

robert indiana

used stencils that had been
originally used to produce commercial signs to create
his own artistic messages.

26

minimalism

sought to reduce art to its barest
essentials, emphasizing simplification of form and
often featuring monochromatic palettes

27

hard edge painting

invention of acrylic paint and the airbrush enabled Minimalist
painters to achieve very precise outlines,
which resulted in the term "hard-edge painting."

28

frank stella

The artist who is best known for these large, entirely
non-objective paintings

29

david smith medium

stainless tell

30

dan flavin medium

neon tubing

31

photorealism

a hyper-real quality results from the
depiction of the subject matter in sharp focus, as in
a photograph

32

2 photorealist artists

chuck close, duane hanson

33

One intriguing development in the contemporary
art world since the 1970s

art is no longer
limited to gallery or museum spaces, and many important
works of art are departures from traditional
formats.

34

christo and jeanne-claude

earthworks. Beginning
in Europe, Christo startled the world with the
idea that landscape or architecture is something that
can be packaged. He wrapped several well-known
monuments in fabric, built a twenty-four-mile-long
cloth fence in California, surrounded eleven Florida
islands with pink plastic, and set up orange fabric
gates on pathways throughout Central Park.

35

postmodernism

takes many forms across a variety of media. Postmodern works
tend to reintroduce traditional elements or to exaggerate
modernist techniques by using them to the
extreme. Postmodern works often return to earlier
styles, periods, and references and often question
the mores and beliefs of contemporary society.

36

phillip johnson

leading propoent of postmodernism. at one time
was known as one of the leading modern architects
of the International Style. suggested the radical
idea that one of the functions of art was decoration,
and with the AT&T (now Sony) Building (1984), he
added a finial to the top of the standard office tower.

37

emperor of qin

first emperor to unite the kingdom. He had a
full army of soldiers and their equipment, including
their horses, created life-size in clay and buried as
part of his tomb.

38

which medium was popular during tang dynasty

ceramic

39

what
often astonishes people unfamiliar with the art of
India is

the influence of greek art on the classical images of buddha

40

japanese artistic traditions favor (2)

isometric perspective and flat areas of color

41

japanese artists are best known in the western world for

printmaking

42

Oceania is the collective name for the thousands
of islands that constitute

Polynesia, Melanesia,
and Micronesia

43

asmat

melanesian. most important artistic traiditons related to warfare. they traiditonally engaged in head hunting practices. Enormous
carved wooden shields decorated with beautiful
black, red, and white abstract patterns were traditionally
used for protection in raids among groups
throughout the area; today these shields are seen as
cultural symbols, but they no longer serve the same
function in war.

44

maori

of New Zealand seek cultural renewal by reviving
old traditions in a new context.

45

Following the Koran's scriptures,
Islamic art is

largely non figurative

46

mosque

features qibla wall facing toward mecca; site for communal prayer

47

best known pyramid in the ancient americas

pyramid of the sun in mexico

48

the
majority of artifacts from ancient american cultures are only
from the last

2000 years

49

During the later
centuries of the prehistoric period, the Native
Americans of the Southwest demonstrated remarkable
architectural skills in

the building of pueblo
complexes.

50

6 formal qualities of art

line, shape, form, space, color, and texture

51

most basic of art elements

line

52

The strict definition
of a line is

path of pt moving thru space

53

Horizontal and vertical lines create

stable and static feeling

54

Horizontal lines, such as the line
of the horizon, suggest a feeling of

peace and tranquility

55

shape vs form

shape 2d, form 3d

56

organic shapes/forms

living things
tend to be freeform and irregular in shape or form..tend to express movement and rhythm.

57

A geometric shape or form can convey a sense

order and stability

58

space

an element of art related to the organization
of objects and the areas around them.

59

positive space

The objects,
shapes, or forms in an artwork occupy what
is termed positive space. also called 'figure'

60

In three-dimensional forms, negative
space

may surround the forms or may be created
as a result of open spaces within the forms.

61

whats negative space

the area around the positive space

62

2 primary types of sculpture

freestanding,
or fully in the round, and relief, meaning that
the sculpture projects from a surface or background
of which it is a part

63

aerial/atmospheric perspective

a technique that takes into account the
ways that fog, smoke, and airborne particles change
the appearance of things when they are viewed
from a distance

64

when an aritst uses aerial perspective,

objects that are farther away will appear lighter and
more neutral in color and will lack contrast of color
or value.

65

linear perspective

this
perspective is founded on the visual phenomenon
that as lines recede into the distance, they appear
to converge and eventually vanish at a point on the
horizon.

66

Hue

simply the name of a color

67

3 primary colors

red blue yellow

68

tertiary colors

made by
combining a primary and an adjacent secondary color. there are six of them

69

Two important variables affecting color are

the
amount of light that is reflected and the purity of
the color.

70

value

lightness or darkness of a color or of
gray.

71

neutrals

black and white. they are not hues

72

intensity

refers to the brightness or purity of a
color. The unmixed primary colors, being pure in
color, are generally considered to be the most intense
colors.

73

Adding black or gray to a color will

reduce its intensity

74

Adding a color to its complement

lowers the intensity of the color, making it more dull
or neutral in tone

75

local color

refers to the "true" color of an object or area as
seen in normal daylight, irrespective of the effects
of distance or reflections from other objects.

76

optical color

refers
to the effect that special lighting has on the color of
objects.

77

arbitrary color

Artists who use arbitrary color choose colors for
their emotional or aesthetic impact.

78

composition

refers to the artist's organization
of the elements of art

79

rhythm

the principle that we associate with
movement or pattern. Artists create a sense of
movement or rhythm in their artwork through
the repetition of elements such as line, shape, color,
and texture. The artist
directs the movement of our eye through the use of
repeated elements.

80

2 aspects of repetition

motif and pattern

81

motif

single element of a pattern

82

pattern

involves the
repetition of certain elements-color or line-or
motifs within a work of art

83

balance

equal distribution of visual
weight in a work of art.

84

proportion

refers to the size relationships
among the parts of a composition

85

scale

the dimensional relation of the parts of a work to
the work in its entirety, and can refer to the overall
size of an artwork. also refers to the relative size of elements
within the artwork.

86

arguably the most basic of art processes

drawing

87

Drawing is primarily based on the use of

lind

88

Charcoal is so soft that

the color of the paper
used will show through in places where the strokes
are applied lightly.

89

hard vs light pencils

hard - light, thin lines
soft - thicker lines that may vary from light to dark

90

shading is used to

change values

91

The major drawback of pastels is that

theyre very fragile. pastel drawings must be cared for gently; theyre sprayed with fixatives to prevent smearing

92

four principal printmaking processes

relief prints, intaglio prints, lithographs, screen prints

93

all printmaking processes use

some sort of printing plate
(a "matrix") on which an image is created. Ink is applied
to the plate, and the image is transferred to paper
or another material.

94

relief printmaking

the artist cuts away parts
from the surface of the plate

95

2 intaglio processes

engraving and etching

96

etching

the design is incised through a layer of wax or varnish
applied to the surface of a metal plate

97

intaglio

works in the opposite
manner from relief printmaking. In the intaglio
process, lines are incised on the wood or soft metal
plate. later immerses plate in acid

98

lithography

the image is
drawn with a waxy pencil or crayon directly on a plate

99

screen prints are used to print most

t shirts

100

silk screening process

a photograph or other image
is transferred or adhered to a silk or synthetic fabric
that has been stretched onto a frame. The image
serves as a sort of stencil, blocking out areas of the
permeable fabric.

101

paint is usually composed of 3 diff materials

pigments, binders, solvents

102

pigments

finely ground materials that may be
natural or synthetic. N

103

binder

holds the grains of pigment together and allows the
paint to adhere to a surface. Egg yolks, linseed oil,
and wax can all be used as binders

104

solvent

such as water or oil can be added to
change the consistency of the paint or alter its drying
time

105

The fresco technique is
usually used to paint on

walls/ceilings

106

In creating
a buon "true" fresco

the artist mixes pure powdered pigments
with water and applies them to a wet plaster ground.
The paint is permanently bound in the plaster, so
the artist must plan carefully because he or she will
not be able to make changes after the fact

107

fresco secco

artist will apply paints to dry rather than wet plaster

108

diego rivera

famous mexican muralist of the early 20th century. used fresco secco

109

tempera

water-based paint; uses egg as a binder

110

limitations to tempera painting

colors dry quickly, and so they
cannot be blended once they are applied to a surface.
Tempera also has a narrow tonal range-colors
are either light or dark-and it cannot achieve
the close imitation of natural effects that oil paints
can

111

advantage of tempera

many ancient tempera paintings still retain their clear and brilliant colors

112

oil paints are more __ than tempera

versatile

113

oil paints can be __ and __

easily mixed; thinned to build up layers of delicate glazes

114

glazes

thin transparent or semi-transparent layers that
are applied over another color to alter it slightly.

115

impasto

Oils can be applied thickly or in heavy lumps to
make an impasto surface.

116

describe encaustic process

colored molten wax is fused with the surface
via the application of hot irons. very durable

117

gouache

a water-based opaque paint that
is similar to school-quality tempera, but of higher
quality. Gouache has more body and dries more
slowly than watercolor

118

advantages of gouache

good medium for creating
bright colors and meticulous details and is often
used for design and fine artwork

119

watercolor

most common water based paint. theyre transparent. watercolor isn't forgiving of mistakes

120

in water color painting, how is stuff done

lightest colors applied first. work from background to foreground. broad to detailed areas

121

acrylic paint

recent development. Made from synthetic materials, plastics, and polymers,
acrylics were developed after World War II

122

adv of acrylic paint

very versatile. They do not require the
slow, careful building up of successive layers with
long drying periods in between as do oils. alternative for artists who are allergic to oil paint and turpentine

123

disadv of acrylic paint

unable to achieve some of the subtleties
of which oil paints are capable

124

Sculpture is created in four basic ways:

carving,
modeling, casting, and construction

125

modeling

additive process. A soft, workable
material like clay, wax, plaster, or papier-mache is
formed by hand. Amounts of these materials can be
added to the surface, and the surface can be shaped
and decorated by hand or with simple tools

126

cast form

Sometimes an unfired clay or wax sculpture can
become the basis for a cast form. In this process,
the original form is encased in plaster. When the
plaster hardens, it is removed from the original
form and retained for use as a mold. The mold can
then be filled

127

alexander calder

created mobiles with forms suspended by wire
which can be moved by wind or air currents.

128

Often, an essential part of the work of environmental
artists is

the process of collaborating with the
community and governmental agencies to gain approval
for their proposed works

129

The artist Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008) is
well known for

his mixed media pieces that combine
silkscreen images with paint.

130

joseph cornell

twentieth-century artist
who filled open boxes with a variety of objects that
visually created symbolic and metaphoric statements.

131

Since performances cannot be sold as
objects, this art form has also been viewed by many
as

an escape from the increasing commercialization
of art

132

Pottery is a medium based upon

the use of natural materials

133

slip

liquid clay

134

Using the potter's wheel,

the potter forms the basic
shapes of the pot by manipulating the ball of clay as
it turns on the wheel.

135

Once the clay form has air-dried,

the kiln, a specialized
oven, is loaded and fired.

136

what happens in the kiln

a
chemical change takes place. The pots harden permanently. pots may be fired again after glazes and clay are added

137

glazes

when melted, form a glassy, waterproof surface on
the pots that is both decorative and useful.

138

glass was first made

in the Middle East in the third millennium
BCE.

139

glass is most often made of

silica, which is
derived from sand, flint, or quartz, combined with
other raw materials.

140

post and lintel construction technique

a long.stone or wooden beam is placed horizontally
across upright posts. The famous Greek
Parthenon is an example of post-and-lintel construction.

141

In the medieval period, a skeletal building style
developed that

alternated between strong buttresses
and thin walls with stained-glass windows, which
admitted more light and color into the building

142

flying buttresses

external arches that counterbalanced the outward
thrust of the high, vaulted ceilings

143

antonio gaudi

created ingenious
buildings of cut stone in Spain in the late 1800s and
early 1900s. Without any flat surfaces or straight
lines, Gaudi's buildings are very organic in appearance.

144

__ annd __ have become the favored materials
for large public, commercial, and multi-family
housing

steel and conrete

145

__ and __ continue to be
commonly used for residential homes.

wood and brick