Flashcards in #3: Affect & Cognitive Interventions & Environmental Modifications Deck (31):
Depression in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is common in ....
15%-63% of dementia population
When is depression more common in AD?
early to mid-stages
What does depression in AD possibly reflect...
-lack of control,
-sense of helplessness,
-insufficient reinforcing activities, -loneliness.
Depression in AD is can often lead to...
3. more impaired
- increased mortality
- reduced quality of life
- impairments in activities of daily living
- earlier admission to long-term care facilities
-greater likelihood of behavioural disturbances
- larger caregiver burden
What makes the diagnosis of depression in dementia so challenging?
- reduced communication abilities
- difficulty distinguishing depressive symptoms from those common in dementia such as emotional dysregulation, apathy, cognitive changes).
What is the first step of AD depression diagnosis
What other factors can produce symptoms of depression in AD
Side effects of medications or an unrecognized medical condition
What are the 8 sub-symptoms of depression and how many must be present for how long?
- Social isolation or withdrawal
- Disruption in appetite
- Disruption in sleep
- Agitation or slowed behavior
- Fatigue or loss of energy
- Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, or guilt
- Recurrent thoughts of death, suicide plans or a suicide attempt (less common in AD)
Two or more symptoms over 2 weeks**
What are the 2 main symptoms of depression
-Depressed mood (sad, hopeless, discouraged or tearful)
-decreased pleasure in usual activities
treatment of depression in AD improves?
-sense of well-being
-quality of life
What are 5 non pharmachological therapies for depression in AD?
Behaviour therapy (positive reinforcement)
Simulated presence therapy
What 3 approaches are often combined in treating depression in AD patients?
pharmacological & non pharmacological approaches
What are the 8 physician prescribed antidepressants for people with AD
CDE PP RW
What is the defining early feature of AD
Which aspect of memory shows early and rapid decline
What are 3 distinct approaches to cognitive interventions
1) Cognitive Rehabilitation
2) Cognitive Stimulation
3) Cognitive Training
What is cognitive stimulation
global stimulation and reality orientation
What level of AD decline is cognitive stimulation used for
moderate AD severity
With cognitive stimulation it is unclear which are beneficial or the impact of...
...social interaction in creating a more stimulating environment
What is cognitive training
guided practice on a set of standard tasks
example: setting the table
What is the focus of cognitive training
specific cognitive functions (memory, attention, language etc.)
Cognitive training is based on the idea that...
practice can maintain or improve functioning in a given domain and will generalize to other similar tasks
Cognitive or neuropsychological tests like the _____________ are typically used to cognitive: training/simulation or rehabilitation?
Usually involves a control group? T/F
usually with comparison to a control group
with few significant findings
What is cognitive rehabilitation
individualized approach to helping those with cognitive impairments
Who conducts a cognitive rehabilitation
individuals with AD, families, and health care professionals work together to identify personally relevant goals and strategies for addressing them
Goals of cognitive rehabilitation
enhance/maintain everyday functioning and well being, reduce caregiver burden
-significant benefits identified, but a lack of randomized controlled trials - more research needed IS related to...
Outcome of cognitive rehabilitation research
What is the focus of cognitive rehabilitation?
1. building on strengths (aspects of preserved memory)
2. strategies for compensating for weaknesses
Episodic memory is the memory of ___________________ that can be explicitly stated.
Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events that can be explicitly stated.
ex:(times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge)
Semantic memory refers to a portion of ____________ that processes _____________. Semantic memory includes things that are ______________.
Semantic memory refers to a portion of long-term memory that processes ideas and concepts that are not drawn from personal experience.
Ex: names of colors,
the sounds of letters,
the capitals of countries
and other basic facts acquired over a lifetime