#3: Affect & Cognitive Interventions & Environmental Modifications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in #3: Affect & Cognitive Interventions & Environmental Modifications Deck (31):
1

Depression in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is common in ....

15%-63% of dementia population

2

When is depression more common in AD?

early to mid-stages

3

What does depression in AD possibly reflect...

-lack of control,
-sense of helplessness,
-insufficient reinforcing activities, -loneliness.

4

Depression in AD is can often lead to...
1. increased
2. reduced
3. more impaired
4. earlier
5. greater
6. larger

- increased mortality
- reduced quality of life
- impairments in activities of daily living
- earlier admission to long-term care facilities
-greater likelihood of behavioural disturbances
- larger caregiver burden

5

What makes the diagnosis of depression in dementia so challenging?

- reduced communication abilities
- difficulty distinguishing depressive symptoms from those common in dementia such as emotional dysregulation, apathy, cognitive changes).

6

What is the first step of AD depression diagnosis

professional evaluation

7

What other factors can produce symptoms of depression in AD

Side effects of medications or an unrecognized medical condition

8

What are the 8 sub-symptoms of depression and how many must be present for how long?

- Social isolation or withdrawal
- Disruption in appetite
- Disruption in sleep
- Agitation or slowed behavior
- Irritability
- Fatigue or loss of energy
- Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, or guilt
- Recurrent thoughts of death, suicide plans or a suicide attempt (less common in AD)

Two or more symptoms over 2 weeks**

9

What are the 2 main symptoms of depression

-Depressed mood (sad, hopeless, discouraged or tearful)
-decreased pleasure in usual activities

10

treatment of depression in AD improves?

-sense of well-being
-quality of life
-function.

11

What are 5 non pharmachological therapies for depression in AD?
BRVSC

Behaviour therapy (positive reinforcement)
Reminiscience Therapy
Validation Therapy
Simulated presence therapy
Cognitive Therapy

12

What 3 approaches are often combined in treating depression in AD patients?

pharmacological & non pharmacological approaches
ECT

13

What are the 8 physician prescribed antidepressants for people with AD
CDE PP RW

(Wellbutrin®)
(Celexa®)
(Prozac®)
(Remeron®)
(Paxil®)
(Zoloft®)
(Desyrel®)
(Effexor®)

14

What is the defining early feature of AD

Memory decline

15

Which aspect of memory shows early and rapid decline

Episodic

16

What are 3 distinct approaches to cognitive interventions
RST (rest)

1) Cognitive Rehabilitation
2) Cognitive Stimulation
3) Cognitive Training

17

What is cognitive stimulation

global stimulation and reality orientation

18

What level of AD decline is cognitive stimulation used for

moderate AD severity

19

With cognitive stimulation it is unclear which are beneficial or the impact of...

...social interaction in creating a more stimulating environment

20

What is cognitive training

ex:

guided practice on a set of standard tasks

example: setting the table

21

What is the focus of cognitive training

specific cognitive functions (memory, attention, language etc.)

22

Cognitive training is based on the idea that...

practice can maintain or improve functioning in a given domain and will generalize to other similar tasks

23

Cognitive or neuropsychological tests like the _____________ are typically used to cognitive: training/simulation or rehabilitation?
Usually involves a control group? T/F
How significant?

TRAINING
(e,g, MMSE)
usually with comparison to a control group
with few significant findings

24

What is cognitive rehabilitation

individualized approach to helping those with cognitive impairments

25

Who conducts a cognitive rehabilitation

individuals with AD, families, and health care professionals work together to identify personally relevant goals and strategies for addressing them

26

Goals of cognitive rehabilitation

enhance/maintain everyday functioning and well being, reduce caregiver burden

27

-significant benefits identified, but a lack of randomized controlled trials - more research needed IS related to...


Outcome of cognitive rehabilitation research

28

What is the focus of cognitive rehabilitation?
2

EX:

1. building on strengths (aspects of preserved memory)
2. strategies for compensating for weaknesses

EX:

29

Episodic memory is the memory of ___________________ that can be explicitly stated.

ex:

Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events that can be explicitly stated.

ex:(times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge)

30

Semantic memory refers to a portion of ____________ that processes _____________. Semantic memory includes things that are ______________.

Examples:

Semantic memory refers to a portion of long-term memory that processes ideas and concepts that are not drawn from personal experience.

Ex: names of colors,
the sounds of letters,
the capitals of countries
and other basic facts acquired over a lifetime

31

Implicit memory is a type of ______________ memory that doesn't require ____________ ____________ It allows you to do things by _______.

ex:

Implicit memory is a type of long-term memory doesn't require conscious thought. It allows you to do things by rote.

ex: sing a song you have known forever