3. Back & hip anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3. Back & hip anatomy Deck (88):
1

Cervical Vertebrae

(7); flex, ext, rot, lat flex

2

Thoracic Vertebrae

(12); flex, ext; Transverse processes have rib facets

3

Lumbar Vertebrae

(5); flex, ext, rot, lat flex

4

Sacrum

S1-S5 fused

5

Coccyx

C1-C5 fused; no cord; tailbone

6

Vertebral body

Weight-bearing part of vertebra

7

Vertebral arch

2 pedicles & lamina; surrounds spinal cord

8

Vertebral foramen

Space within vertebral arch

9

Intervertebral foramen

opening between vertebrae on each side of column where spinal nerves exit

10

Vertebral processes

Transverse (2); spinous (1)

11

Superior facets

Non-weight bearing

12

Inferior facets

Non-weight bearing

13

Anterior longitudinal lig

Runs along ANTERIOR of body; limits extension

14

Posterior longitudinal lig.

Runs along POSTERIOR of body; limits flexion; next to spinal cord

15

Ligamentum flavum

Connects lamina to lamina; limits flexion

16

Supraspinous lig.

Connects TIPS OF SPINOUS PROCESSES; limits flexion; PALPABLE

17

Interspinous lig.

Connects spinous processes; limits flexion

18

Intertransverse lig.

Connects transverse processes; LIMITS LAT FLEX ON OPPOSITE SIDE

19

Intervertebral disc

Annular fibrous (outer ring); Nucleus pulposus (inner ring); Avascular; no nerve supply; Lumbar thicker, allowing greater mobility

20

Superficial posterior muscles

Latissimus dorsi (ext); Trapezius (ext); Rhomboids (major & minor)

21

Deep posterior muscles

Paraspinals; Erector spinae

22

Erector spinae muscles

(Lateral = iliocostalis; Middle = Longissimus; Medial = Spinalis); Maintains erect posture; rotates trunk

23

Anterior muscles

Rectus abdominus; Transverse abdominis; External oblique; Internal oblique

24

Rectus abdominus

Maintains posture; trunk flexion; lat flexion

25

Transverse abdominis

Maintains posture

26

External oblique

Maintains posture; Lat flexion; rotation

27

Internal oblique

Maintains posture; Lat flexion; rotation

28

Internal intercostal Muscles

Expiration; run laterally; deep

29

External intercostal muscles

Inspiration; run medially; superficial

30

General nerve pathway out of Spinal Cord

Spinal roots > Spinal nerves > Rami

31

Are spinal nerves sensory, motor, or mixed?

Mixed

32

Posterior rami

Supplies deep muscles & skin of posterior trunk; T2-T12

33

Anterior rami

Supplies lower & upper limbs. Lateral and anterior trunk > intercostal nerves

34

Meningeal branch

Branches off spinal nerve, reenters thru intervertebral foramen, and innervates vertebra, lig, vessels, & meninges

35

Plexus

Network of nerves formed by anterior rami

36

Lumbar Plexus

L1-L4; Gives rise to femoral nerve & obturator nerve

37

Femoral nerve

Innervates thigh flexors and knee extenders

38

Obturator nerve

Innervates leg adductors

39

Sacral plexus

L4-S4; Gives rise to Gluteal, Pudendal, Thigh, and Sciatic nerves

40

Sciatic nerve

Posterior nerve of leg; Gives rise to Common Peroneal (fibular) n., Superficial peroneal/fibular n.; Deep peroneal/fibular n., and Tibial n.

41

Lumbosacral plexus

Lumbar and sacral plexi combined

42

Conus Medullaris

Ends between L1 & L2

43

Filum Terminale

Extension of pia mater that attaches to coccyx

44

Cauda equina

Lumbar/sacral nerve roots as they travel in vertebral canal below spinal cord

45

Pelvis

2 Innominate bones fused

46

Important landmarks of pubis

Inferior ramus; Superior ramus; Crest of pubis; Pubic symphysis

47

Important landmarks of ilium

ASIS; PSIS; AIIS; PIIS; Greater sciatic notch

48

Important landmarks of ischium

Ischial tuberosity; Lesser sciatic notch

49

Acetabulum

Hip socket; fusion of pubis, ilium, ischium; Opens lat, inf, ant.

50

Acetabulum Labrum

Lines & deepens socket

51

Sacroiliac (SI) Joint

PSIS & spinous processes; dimple of buttocks; ant/post movements only; Trunk flex > post movement; Trunk ext > ant movement

52

Ischial-Femoral Joint

Ball in socket; Femoral head; Acetabular labrum; capsule; HIP JOINT

53

Pubic Symphysis

Fibrocartilaginous disc; 3 stabilizing ligaments (Superior/Inferior/ Posterior)

54

Trochanteric bursa

Between bone & skin

55

Iliopsoas Bursa

Between bone and psoas

56

Ischial tuberosity bursa

Between tuberosity and skin

57

False Pelvis

Between iliac wings

58

True pelvis

Between ischial & pubic bones

59

Hip Ligaments

Ischiofemoral; Pubofemoral; Iliofemoral; all twisted in anatomical position; straighten during hip flexion

60

Superficial Hip/Pelvic Muscles

Gluteus maximus; Hamstrings

61

Gluteus maximus

Extend hip when knee is flexed

62

Hamstrings

Hip extension w/ knee extended; 3 muscles

63

3 Hamstring Muscles

Biceps femoris (lateral); Semitendinosus (med); Semimembranosus (Med)

64

Deep Hip Muscles

External rotators; Piriformis; Obturator internus/externus; Sup & Inf Gemellus; Quadratus femoris; Gluteus medius

65

Anterior hip muscles

Psoas; Iliacus; Obturator externus; Rectus femoris; Sartorius; Pectineus

66

Psoas

Sitting flexion

67

Iliacus

Sitting flexion

68

Obturator externus

ER of hip

69

Rectus femoris

Supine flexion

70

Sartorius

Flex, abd, ER

71

Pectineus

Add, flex

72

Medial hip muscles

Adductors; Gracilis; Adductor magnus/brevis/longus

73

Lateral hip muscles

Abductors; Gluteus minimus & medius; Tensor fascia latae

74

Primary posterior hip nerve

Sciatic n.

75

Primary anterior hip nerve

Femoral n.

76

Branches of sciatic n.

Tibial n. & Common peroneal/fibular n.

77

Posterior hip dislocation nerve impingement

Sciatic n.

78

Anterior hip dislocation nerve impingement

Femoral n.

79

Blood supply of Hips

External Iliac Artery

80

Branches of External Iliac Artery

Femoral and deep femoral aa.

81

Assessing True Leg Length

Measure from ASIS to MEDIAL malleolus

82

Assessing Apparent Leg Length

Measure from Umbilicus to MEDIAL malleolus

83

Borders of inguinal triangle

Sartorius (lateral), Adductor longus (Medial); Inguinal ligament (superior)

84

Motor Tracts (Descending)

Corticospinal (lateral & ventral); Corticobulbar (facial)

85

Sensory Tracts (Ascending)

Spinal Thalamic (Lat & Ant); Dorsal Columns

86

Lateral Spinal Thalamic Tract

Pain & temp

87

Anterior Spinal Thalamic Tract

Crude touch & pressure

88

Dorsal Columns

Fine touch, light pressure, vibration, joint position